Determination of heavy metals and selenium content in chicken liver at Erbil city, Iraq
Heavy metal contamination of poultry meat is a critical issue for human health due to associated risks of cytotoxicity and systemic pathologies after ingestion of such metals. A total of twenty chicken liver samples were collected from markets of Erbil city and analyzed for ten heavy metals contents by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry. The targeted metals were cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se). The average concentrations (mg/kg) of targeted trace elements were 0.06±0.027, 0.06±0.05, 2.05±0.34, 1.85±0.47, 0.15±0.17, and 33.53±5.24 for Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn respectively. Copper (Cu) levels significantly exceeded the maximum permissible limit of WHO. Moreover, the average concentrations of toxic heavy metals and selenium were 0.07±0.037, 0.278±0.10, 0.11±0.083, and 2.01±0.454 mg/kg for Cd, Pb, Hg, and Se respectively. Hg and Pb levels exceeded the permissible limits of WHO. Higher levels of Cu and Hg in poultry may pose a serious threat to consumers which demand countermeasures and precautions to be taken. Iraqi Standards Authority and relevant official institutions are strongly recommended to regulate safe disposal of heavy metal waste in the environment to reduce animal exposure to such metals.
Agade YI, Faith EA, Muhammed M, 2019. Some heavy metals in different types and brands of poultry feeds in Lafia Metropolis. Int J Innov Food, Nutr & Sustain Agric 7:1–5.
AL-Bratty M Al, Alhazmi HA, Ogdi SJ et al., 2018. Determination of heavy metals in various tissues of locally reared (Baladi) chicken in Jazan region of Saudi Arabia: Assessment of potential health risks. Pak J Zool 50:1509–1517.
Al-Zuhairi W, Farhan M, Ahemd M, 2015. Determine of heavy metals in the heart, kidney and meat of beef, mutton and chicken from Baquba and Howaydir market in Baquba, Diyala province, Iraq. Int J Recent Sci Res 6:5965–5967.
Aljaff P, Rasheed B, Salh DM, 2014. Assessment of heavy metals in livers of cattle and chicken by spectroscopic method. J Appl Phys 6:23–26.
Almazroo OA, Miah MK, Venkataramanan R, 2017. Drug Metabolism in the Liver. Clin Liver Dis 21:1–20.
Assi MA, Hezmee MNM, Haron AW, Sabri MYM, Rajion MA, 2016. The detrimental effects of lead on human and animal health. Vet World 9:660–671.
Bischoff K, Mukai M, Ramaiah SK, 2018. Liver Toxicity. In: Gupta RC, ed, Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles 3rd Edition. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 239–257.
Bortey-Sam N, Nakayama SMM, Ikenaka Y et al., 2015. Human health risks from metals and metalloid via consumption of food animals near gold mines in Tarkwa, Ghana: Estimation of the daily intakes and target hazard quotients (THQs). Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 111:160–167.
Caldas D, Pestana IA, Almeida MG, Henry FC, Salomão MSMB, de Souza CMM, 2016. Risk of ingesting As, Cd, and Pb in animal products in north Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Chemosphere 164:508–515.
Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC), 2019. General standard for contaminants and toxins in food and feed. CXS 193-1995, Amendment 2019.
Denesyuk NA, Thirumalai D, 2015. How do metal ions direct ribozyme folding? Nat Chem 7:793–801.
Deng H, Zhang Z, Chang C, Wang Y, 2007. Trace metal concentration in great tit (Parus major) and greenfinch (Carduelis sinica) at the Western Mountains of Beijing, China. Environ Pollut 148:620-626.
Draper DE, Grilley D, Soto AM, 2005. Ions and RNA folding. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 34:221–243.
Duman E, Özcan EM, Hamurcu MM, Özcan MM, 2019. Mineral and Heavy Metal Contents of Some Animal Livers. Eur J Sci Technol 15:302–307.
FAO/WHO, 2011. Joint FAO/WHO food standards programme Codex Committee on contaminants in foods fifth session working document for information and use in discussions related to contaminants and toxins in the GSCTFF (Prepared by Japan and the Netherlands). CF/5 INF/1.
Gall JE, Boyd RS, Rajakaruna N, 2015. Transfer of heavy metals through terrestrial food webs: a review. Environ Monit Assess 187:201
Hadyait M, Qayyum A, Bhatti E, Salim S, Ali A, Shahzadi M, 2018. Estimation of Heavy Metals in Liver, Gizzard, Breast and Thigh Muscles of Broiler Chicken in Different Area of Lahore by ICP-OES. PSM Vet Res 3:10–14.
Hussain RT, Ebraheem MK, Moker HM, 2012. Assessment of heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Zn) contents in livers of chicken available in the local markets of Basrah city, Iraq. Basrah J Vet Res 11:43–51.
Hussein A, Khaled A, 2014. Determination of metals in tuna species and bivalves from Alexandria, Egypt. Egypt J Aquat Res 40:9–17.
Itoh H, Iwasaki M, Sawada N et al., 2014. Dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: A case-control study. Int J Hyg Environ Health 217:70–77.
Jaishankar M, Tseten T, Anbalagan N, Mathew BB, Beeregowda KN, 2014. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdiscip Toxicol 7:60–72.
Kennelly P, 2018. The biochemical roles of transition metals. In: Rodwell V, Kennelly P, Bender P, Weil P, Botham K, eds. Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry 31st edn., McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 92–102.
Khan Z, Perween S, Gabol K et al., 2015. Concentrations of heavy metals in liver, meat and blood of poultry chicken Gallus domesticus in three selected cities of Pakistan. Can J Pure Appl Sci 9:3313–3324.
Khandia R, Munjal A, Bangrey RS, Mehra R, Dhama K, Sharma NC, 2015. Evaluation of silver nanoparticle mediated reduction of neovascularisation (angiogenesis) in chicken model. Adv Anim Vet Sci 3:372-6.
Kim J, Koo TH, 2007. Heavy metal concentrations in diet and livers of Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax and Grey Heron Ardea cinerea chicks from Pyeongtaek, Korea. Ecotoxicol 16:411–416.
Mohmand J, Eqani SAMAS, Fasola M et al., 2015. Human exposure to toxic metals via contaminated dust: Bio-accumulation trends and their potential risk estimation. Chemosphere 132:142–151.
Mottalib MA, Zilani G, Suman TI, Ahmed T, Islam S, 2018. Assessment of trace metals in consumer chickens in Bangladesh. J Health and Pollut 8:1-10
Nazmul Haque M, Towhidul Islam MM, Tariqul Hassan M, Shekhar HU, 2019. Determination of Heavy Metal Contents in Frequently Consumed Fast Foods of Bangladesh. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences 89, 543–549.
Ogbomida ET, Nakayama SMM, Bortey-Sam N et al., 2018. Accumulation patterns and risk assessment of metals and metalloid in muscle and offal of free-range chickens, cattle and goat in Benin City, Nigeria. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 151:98–108.
Rahimzadeh MR, Rahimzadeh MR, Kazemi S, Moghadamnia AA, 2017. Cadmium toxicity and treatment: An update. Caspian J Intern Med 8:135–145.
Rai PK, Lee SS, Zhang M, Tsang YF, Kim KH, 2019. Heavy metals in food crops: Health risks, fate, mechanisms, and management. Environ Int 125:365–385.
Rashid K, Sinha K, Sil PC, 2013. An update on oxidative stress-mediated organ pathophysiology. Food Chem Toxicol 62:584–600.
Sadeghi A, Hashemi M, Jamali-Behnam F, Zohani A, Esmaily H, Dehghan AA, 2015. Determination of Chromium, Lead and Cadmium Levels in Edible Organs of Marketed Chickens in Mashhad, Iran. J Food Qual Hazards Control 2:134-138
Spiller HA, 2018. Rethinking mercury: the role of selenium in the pathophysiology of mercury toxicity. Clin Toxicol 56:313–326.
Wang S, Shi X, 2001. Molecular mechanisms of metal toxicity and carcinogenesis. Mol Cell Biochem 222:3–9.
Wu X, Cobbina SJ, Mao G, Xu H, Zhang Z, Yang L, 2016. A review of toxicity and mechanisms of individual and mixtures of heavy metals in the environment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:8244–8259.
Yayayürük O, Yayayürük AE, 2017. Determination of Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Copper, Iron and Manganese in Sheep, Cow and Chicken Liver Samples in Turkey. GIDA The J Food 42:546–552.
- Abstract views: 229
- PDF: 99
- HTML: 0
Copyright (c) 2020 the Author(s)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.