Microbiological criteria: Principles for their establishment and application in food quality and safety

Submitted: 6 September 2019
Accepted: 7 January 2020
Published: 6 April 2020
Abstract Views: 1406
PDF: 898
HTML: 70
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Authors

Legislation on food safety has led towards the standardization of food productions which, together with the existing quality certifications, aim to increase the level of protection of public health. It is recognized the need for the agri-food industry to have tools to harmonize their productions and to adequately manage their quality systems in order to improve consumers’ confidence. The implementation of microbiological criteria is focused on facilitating this harmonization by enabling the discrimination of defective lots and acting as control tools at industrial level. Therefore, knowledge of the principles, components and factors influencing the efficiency of microbiological criteria may be helpful to better understand the consequences of their application. In the present study the main principles, methodologies and applications of microbiological criteria in foods are addressed for their implementation as a part of the management quality systems of agrifood industries. In addition, potential limitations and impact of microbiological criteria on food safety are discussed. Finally, an assessment of the performance of microbiological criteria at EU level in berries is described for the compliance of the socalled risk-based metrics, namely Performance Objectives and Food Safety Objectives.

Dimensions

Altmetric

PlumX Metrics

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Citations

Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) (2004). General Guidelines On Sampling. CAC/GL 50-2004. Accessed: 27-08-19. Available from: http://www.fao.org/input/download/standards/10141/CXG_050s.pdf
Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). Working principles for risk analysis for food safety for application by governments. CAC/GL 62-2007. Accessed: 15-08-19. Available from: http://www.fao.org/input/download/standards/10751/CXG_062e.pdf
Commission Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliarment and of the Council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety. Official Journal of the European Union No. 1, 2002.
Commission Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union, L139 1.
Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 November 2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union, L338 1-26.
Da Silva Felício, M.T., Hald, T., Liebana, E., Allende, A., Hugas, M., Nguyen-The, C., Johannessen, G.S., Niskanen, T., Uyttendaele, M., McLauchlin, J. Risk ranking of pathogens in ready-to-eat unprocessed foods of non-animal origin (FoNAO) in the EU: Initial evaluation using outbreak data (2007–2011). Int J Food Microbiol 2015; 195:9-19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.11.005
Delbeke, S., Ceuppens, S., Titze Hessel, C., Castro, I., Jacxsens, L., De Zutter, L., Uyttendaele, M. Microbial Safety and Sanitary Quality of Strawberry Primary Production in Belgium: Risk Factors for Salmonella and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Contamination. Appl Env Microbiol 2015; 81:2562-70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03930-14
EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), Ricci A, Allende, A., Bolton, D., Chemaly, M., Davies, R., Fernández Escámez, P.S., Girones, R., Herman, L., Koutsoumanis, K., Lindqvist, R., Robertson, L., Ru, G., Sanaa ,M., Simmons, M., Skandamis, P., Snary, E., Speybroeck, N., Ter Kuile, B., Threlfall, J., Wahlstrom, H., Andersen, J.K., Uyttendaele, M., Valero, A., Da Silva Felício, M.T., Messens, W., and Nørrung, B. Scientific Opinion on the guidance on the requirements for the development of microbiological criteria. EFSA Journal 2017;15(11):5052, 60 pp. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.
EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards). Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in berries). EFSA Journal 2014;12(6):3706, 95 pp. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3706. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3706
EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ). Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 1 (outbreak data analysis and risk ranking of food/pathogen combinations). EFSA Journal 2013;11(1):3025, 138 pp. doi:110.2903/j.efsa.2013.3025. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3025
Food Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. Food Safety Risk 3949 Analysis: A Guide for National Food Safety Authorities, FAO Food and Nutrition Papers-87, 3950 FAO, Rome. 2006; ISSN 0254-4725.
Giamperi, F., Tulipani, S., Álvarez-Suárez, J.M., Quiles, J.L., Mezzetti, B., Battino, M. The strawberry: Composition, nutritional quality, and impact on human health. Nutrition 2012; 28: 9-19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2011.08.009
Gonzales-Barron, U., Butler, F. A comparison between the discrete Poisson-gamma and Poisson-lognormal distributions to characterise microbial counts in foods. Food Control 2011; 22(8): 1279-1286. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.01.029
Gonzales-Barron, U., Cadavez, V., Butler, F. Conducting inferential statistics for low microbial counts in foods using the Poisson-gamma regression. Food Control 2014; 37: 385-394. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.09.032
Gonzales-Barron, U., Kerr, M., Sheridan, J. J., Butter, F. Count data distributions and their zero-modified equivalents as a framework for modelling microbial data with a relatively high occurrence of zero counts. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2010; 136(3): 268-277. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.10.016
International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). Microorganisms in Food 7. Microbiological testing in food safety management. 2002; NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
International Life Science Institute (ILSI). Impact of Microbial Distributions on Food Safety. Commissioned by THE ILSI EUROPE Risk Analysis in Food Microbiology TASK FORCE. 2010; ISBN 9789078637202.
Joe, H., Zhu, R. Generalized Poisson distribution: the property of mixture of Poisson and comparison with negative binomial distribution. Biometrical Journal 2005; 47(2): 219-229. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.200410102
Jongenburger, I., Bassett, J., Jackson, T., Zwietering, M. H., Jewell, K. Impact of microbial distributions on food safety I. Factors influencing microbial distributions and modelling aspects. Food Control 2012; 26(2): 601-609. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.02.004
Reich, F., Valero, A., Schill, F., Bungenstock, L., Klein, G. Characterisation of Campylobacter contamination in broilers and assessment of microbiological criteria for the pathogen in broiler slaughterhouses. Food Control 2018; 87: 60-69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.12.013
Stringer, M.. Summary report. Food safety objectives—role in microbiological food safety management. Food Control 2005; 16: 775-94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2004.10.018
Valero, A. Predictive tools and strategies for establishing risk-based microbiological criteria in foods. Food Safety Challenges for Mediterranean Products. Options Méditerranéennes (Series A: Mediterranean Seminars 2015- Number 111), 2015; ISSN: 1016-1121-X. 2015; ISBN: 1012-85352-85547-85353.
Valero, A., Medina, E., Arroyo‐López, F. N. Microbial hazards and their implications in the production of table olives. Food Borne Pathogens and Antibiotic Resistance. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2017a; pp. 119-38. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119139188.ch5
Valero, A., Ortiz, J.C., Fongaro, G., Hernández, M., Rodríguez-Lázaro, D. Definition of sampling procedures for collective-eating establishments based on the distribution of environmental microbiological contamination on food handlers, utensils and surfaces. Food Control 2017b; 77: 8-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.01.013
Van Schothorst, M., Zwietering, M.H., Ross, T., Buchanan, R.L., Cole, M.B., and International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). Relating microbiological criteria to food safety objectives and performance objectives. Food Control 2009; 20: 967-79. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2008.11.005
Zwietering, M.H., Gorris, L.G.M., Farber, J.M. Operationalising a performance objective with a microbiological criterion using a risk-based approach. Food Control, 2015; 58: 33–42. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.07.042

Supporting Agencies

The authors are grateful to the Spanish Government (Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, research project AGL2016-78086-R), to the ‘Asociación Universitaria Iberoamericana de Postgrado (AUIP)’ for their financial support and for L. Pérez Lavalle PhD grant; and to the Agrifood International Campus of Excellence (ceiA3).

How to Cite

1.
Pérez-Lavalle L, Carrasco E, Valero Diaz A. Microbiological criteria: Principles for their establishment and application in food quality and safety. Ital J Food Safety [Internet]. 2020 Apr. 6 [cited 2024 Jul. 23];9(1). Available from: https://www.pagepressjournals.org/ijfs/article/view/8543