Nutritional status of trauma patients hospitalized at surgical intensive care unit
Malnutrition results from a decrease or increase or imbalance of energy, protein and other nutrients, leading to measurable negative effects on body tissue, body shape, organ function and clinical status. Research shows that nutritional support is one of the necessary processes for survival of traumatic patient hospitalized at surgical intensive care unit. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the nutritional status of trauma patients hospitalized at surgical intensive care unit of Kowsar Hospital in Semnan, Iran. This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on patients older than 18 years with head, neck and femur injuries. Initial data were collected using a checklist containing demographic information questions, designed from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education's Nutrition Screening Form, which was available in the Nutrition Assessment Forms and Guidelines for Hospitalized Patients Approved in 2013. The data were analyzed using Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests, paired t-test and Pearson coefficient. The confidence level was 95% and significance level was less than 0.05 in all tests. The amount of energy determined by the intensive care unit for the patients, with a significantly lower relationship than the amount of energy required by the patients for 24 hours, based on the Harris Benedict formula was (918.20±474.80 calories vs. 1535.76±243.73 calories, respectively and P-value˂0.001). The amount of protein determined by the intensive care unit for the patients for 24 hours, with a significantly relationship lower than the protein required for the patients for 24 hours, was (51.68±34.39 vs. 106.57±13.67, respectively, and P-value˂ 0.001). There was a statistically significant relationship between the age of the patients and energy (P˂0.001) and protein (P˂0.001) determined by the intensive care unit for the patients for 24 hours and energy (P˂0.001) and protein (P˂0.001) required for the patients for 24 hours. The results of this study showed that both the amount of energy and the amount of protein determined by the intensive care unit for trauma patients for less than 24 hours were lower than the required level; therefore, dietary modification for these patients is recommended.
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