Cadmium, lead, and mercury in two commercial squid species from the north Adriatic Sea (central Mediterranean): contamination levels and health risk assessment

Submitted: 28 November 2022
Accepted: 1 February 2023
Published: 8 June 2023
Abstract Views: 1302
PDF: 231
HTML: 7
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Authors

In this study, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in European squids (Loligo vulgaris) and flying squids (Todarodes sagittatus) from the northern Adriatic Sea (Italy) were analyzed. The risk of the Italian population being exposed to potentially hazardous metal concentrations through the consumption of these products was also assessed. Compared to European squids, flying squids showed three times higher total Hg concentrations and one hundred times higher Cd concentrations to the point that more than 6 and 25% of the samples exceeded the maximum Hg and Cd limits established by the current legislation. From the evaluation of dietary exposure levels, it emerged that the consumption of flying squids was associated with the highest Pb intake by children and, consequently, with the lower margin of exposure values in relation to the risk of neurotoxicity (margin of exposure=33). Consumption of flying squids, especially by children, was also associated with higher intakes of Cd, inorganic, and methyl-Hg, which, respectively, accounted for 156, 113, and 23% of the tolerable weekly intakes established for these contaminants at European level. The obtained results raise concern and it may be necessary to provide specific dietary advice on the moderate dietary consumption of some cephalopod species, especially to the youngest and most vulnerable segment of the population. However, besides the highly conservative deterministic method adopted in this study, a refined consumer exposure assessment should be performed through the probabilistic methodology, which is more suitable to represent the real exposure scenario.

Dimensions

Altmetric

PlumX Metrics

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Citations

AOAC, 1990. Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists. 15th ed. Arlington, VA: The Association.
Ariano A, Marrone R, Andreini R, Smaldone G, Velotto S, Montagnaro S, Anastasio A, Severino L, 2019. Metal concentration in muscle and digestive gland of common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) from two coastal site in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy). Molecules 24:1-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132401
Barone G, Storelli A, Garofalo R, Busco VP, Quaglia NC, Centrone G, Storelli MM, 2015. Assessment of mercury and cadmium via seafood consumption in Italy: estimated dietary intake (EWI) and target hazard quotient (THQ). Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 32:1277-86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2015.1055594
Bustamante P, Cosson RP, Gallien I, Caurant F, Miramand P, 2002. Cadmium detoxification processes in the digestive gland of cephalopods in relation to accumulated cadmium concentrations. Mar Environ Res 53:227-41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-1136(01)00108-8
Bustamante P, Lahaye V, Durnez C, Churlaud C, Caurant F, 2006. Total and organic Hg concentrations in cephalopods from the North Eastern Atlantic waters: influence of geographical origin and feeding ecology. Sci Total Environ 368:585-96. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.01.038
EFSA, 2005. Opinion of the scientific committee on a request from EFSA related to a harmonised approach for risk assessment of substances which are both genotoxic and carcinogenic (Request No EFSA-Q-2004-020). EFSA J 282:1-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2005.282
EFSA, 2009. Cadmium in food - scientific opinion of the Panel on contaminants in the food chain. EFSA J 980:1-139.
EFSA, 2010. Scientific opinion on lead in food. EFSA J 8:1570. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1570
EFSA, 2012. Scientific opinion on the risk for public health related to the presence of mercury and methylmercury in food. EFSA J 10:2985. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2985
EFSA, 2022a. The EFSA comprehensive european food consumption database. Available from: https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/data-report/food-consumption-data.
EFSA, 2022b. Chemical Hazards Database (OpenFoodTox). Available from: https://www.efsa.europa.eu/it/data-report/chemical-hazards-database-openfoodtox.
European Commission, 2006. Regulation 1881/2006/EC, 2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. In: Official Journal L 364/5, 20/12/2006.
FAO, 2020. FAO Fisheries Statistics databases. Available from: https://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics-query/en/home.
Lourenço HM, Anacleto P, Afonso C, Ferraria V, Martins MF, Carvalho ML, Lino AR, Nunes ML, 2009. Elemental composition of cephalopods from Portuguese continental waters. Food Chem 113:1146-53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.09.003
Miedico O, Iammarino M, Pompa C, Tarallo M, Chiaravalle AE, 2015. Assessment of lead, cadmium and mercury in seafood marketed in Puglia and Basilicata (Italy) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 8:85-92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19393210.2014.989281
Penicaud V, Lacoue-Labarthe T, Bustamante P, 2017. Metal bioaccumulation and detoxification processes in cephalopods: a review. Environ Res 155:123-33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.02.003
Perugini M, Visciano P, Manera M, Zaccaroni A, Olivieri V, Amorena M, 2009. Levels of total mercury in marine organisms from Adriatic Sea, Italy. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83:244-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-009-9758-9
Piras P, Chessa G, Cossu M, Rubattu F, Fiori G, 2013. Variability of cadmium accumulation in cephalopods (Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis, loligo vulgaris and Todarodes sagittatus) collected in Sardinia in 2008-2012. Ital J Food Saf 2:81-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/ijfs.2013.e24
Raimundo J, Vale C, Rosa R, 2014. Trace element concentrations in the top predator jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) from the Gulf of California. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 102:179-86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.01.026
Rodrigo AP, Costa PM, 2017. The role of the cephalopod digestive gland in the storage and detoxification of marine pollutants. Front Physiol 8:232. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00232
Sangiuliano D, Rubio C, Gutiérrez AJ, González-Weller D, Revert C, Hardisson A, Zanardi E, Paz S, 2017. Metal concentrations in samples of frozen cephalopods (Cuttlefish, octopus, squid, and shortfin squid): an evaluation of dietary intake. J Food Prot 80:1867-71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-17-184
Storelli MM, 2008. Potential human health risks from metals (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) via seafood consumption: estimation of target hazard quotients (THQs) and toxic equivalents (TEQs). Food Chem Toxicol 46:2782-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2008.05.011
Storelli MM, 2009. Intake of essential minerals and metals via consumption of seafood from the Mediterranean sea. J Food Prot 72:1116-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-72.5.1116
Storelli MM, Garofalo R, Giungato D, Giacominelli-Stuffler R, 2010. Intake of essential and non-essential elements from consumption of octopus, cuttlefish and squid. Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 3:14-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19440040903552390
Storelli MM, Giacominelli-Stuffler R, Storelli A, Marcotrigiano GO, 2006. Cadmium and mercury in cephalopod molluscs: estimated weekly intake. Food Addit Contam 23:25-30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030500242023
Storelli MM, Marcotrigiano GO, 2004. Content of mercury and cadmium in fish (Thunnus alalunga) and cephalopods (Eledone moschata) from the south-eastern Mediterranean sea. Food Addit Contam 21:1051-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030400023127
Varrà MO, Husáková L, Patočka J, Ghidini S, Zanardi E, 2021. Multi-element signature of cuttlefish and its potential for the discrimination of different geographical provenances and traceability. Food Chem 356:129687. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129687
Yusá V, Suelves T, Ruiz-Atienza L, Cervera ML, Benedito V, Pastor A, 2008. Monitoring programme on cadmium, lead and mercury in fish and seafood from Valencia, Spain: levels and estimated weekly intake. Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 1:22-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19393210802236935
Zrelli S, Amairia S, Chaabouni M, Oueslati W, Chine O, Nachi Mkaouar A, Cheikhsbouii A, Ghorbel R, Zrelli M, 2021. Contamination of fishery products with mercury, cadmium, and lead in Tunisia: level’s estimation and human health risk assessment. Biol Trace Elem Res 199:721-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02179-8

How to Cite

1.
Varrà MO, Husáková L, Patočka J, Ianieri A, Ghidini S, Zanardi E. Cadmium, lead, and mercury in two commercial squid species from the north Adriatic Sea (central Mediterranean): contamination levels and health risk assessment. Ital J Food Safety [Internet]. 2023 Jun. 8 [cited 2024 Jul. 25];12(2). Available from: https://www.pagepressjournals.org/ijfs/article/view/11037