An overview of glioblastoma multiforme in vitro experimental models


Submitted: October 5, 2023
Accepted: February 2, 2024
Published: February 15, 2024
Abstract Views: 203
PDF: 111
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Authors

  • Alessandra Maria Vitale Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics (BIND), University of Palermo, Palermo; Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology (IEMEST), Palermo, Italy. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7566-4309
  • Giuseppa D’Amico Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics (BIND), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2131-563X
  • Radha Santonocito Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics (BIND), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
  • Gioacchino Spinnato Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics (BIND), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy. https://orcid.org/0009-0001-5573-682X
  • Martina Di Marco Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics (BIND), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy. https://orcid.org/0009-0007-8174-6320
  • Federica Scalia Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics (BIND), University of Palermo, Palermo; Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology (IEMEST), Palermo, Italy.
  • Claudia Campanella Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics (BIND), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
  • Giovanni Tringali Department of Neurosurgery, National Relevance and High Specialization Hospital Trust ARNAS Civico, Palermo, Italy.
  • Ilaria Giusti Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.
  • Vincenza Dolo Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.
  • Francesco Cappello Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics (BIND), University of Palermo, Palermo; Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology (IEMEST), Palermo, Italy.
  • Celeste Caruso Bavisotto Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics (BIND), University of Palermo, Palermo; Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology (IEMEST), Palermo, Italy.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor, characterized by a remarkable inner complexity and inter-tumor variability. Moreover, it is very aggressive and resistant to conventional treatments, so that it rapidly relapse. Therefore, there is an immediate need for experimental strategies to enhance our comprehension of GBM, aiming to mitigate its economic and social impact. Here, we described different in vivo and in vitro strategies currently used for the study of GBM. First, we gave a brief and general overview of the classical in vivo models, including xenograft mouse and zebrafish models and canine models, offering a wide range of advantages but also presenting a series of strong limitations. Thus, we described in vitro models, starting from more traditional 2D culture models, comparing different approaches and critically exposing the advantages and disadvantages of using one or the other methods. We also briefly described GBM 2D culture systems that allow recreating multiple cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix contacts but still do not reflect the complexity of in vivo tumors. We finally described the intricacies of the more novel 3D in vitro models, e.g., spheroids and organoids. These sophisticated models have demonstrated exceptional suitability across a wide spectrum of applications in cancer research, ranging from fundamental scientific inquiries to applications in translational research. Their adaptability and three-dimensional architecture render them invaluable tools, offering new insights and paving the way for advancements in both basic and applied research.


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Vitale, A. M., D’Amico, G., Santonocito, R., Spinnato, G., Di Marco, M., Scalia, F., Campanella, C., Tringali, G., Giusti, I., Dolo, V., Cappello, F., & Caruso Bavisotto, C. (2024). An overview of glioblastoma multiforme <i>in vitro</i> experimental models. Journal of Biological Research - Bollettino Della Società Italiana Di Biologia Sperimentale. https://doi.org/10.4081/jbr.2024.11920

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