Analysis of the effect of brown rice, tuna, cucumber, and pineapple treatment on proteinuria and albuminuria in Wistar Rats strain with chronic kidney disease


Submitted: September 27, 2023
Accepted: February 19, 2024
Published: March 7, 2024
Abstract Views: 123
PDF: 49
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Authors

This study aims to determine how nutrition therapy with brown rice, tuna fish, pineapple, and cucumber affects proteinuria and albuminuria in male Wistar rats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, 16 male Wistar rats with CKD were divided into four groups. The result states that the third treatment, consisting of 341 g/kg BW (Body Weight)/day brown rice, 15 g/kg BW/day tuna fish, 2 g/kg BW/day pineapple, and 2 g/kg BW/day cucumber could reduce both proteinuria (p < 0.01) and albuminuria (p < 0.01) in rats. However, the first (250 g brown rice, 13 g/kg BW/day tuna fish, 1 g/kg BW/day pineapple, 1 g/kg BW/day cucumber) and second treatment (296 g/kg BW/day brown rice, 14 g/kg BW/day tuna fish, 1.5 g/kg BW/day pineapple, 1.5 g/kg BW/day cucumber) could not reduce the levels of proteinuria and albuminuria in rats. In conclusion, giving a balanced diet containing 341 g/kg BW/day of brown rice, 15 g/kg BW/day of tuna fish, 2 g/kg BW/day of pineapple, and 2 g/kg BW/day of cucumber for CKD can maintain body fluid and increase the re-absorption of proteins and albumin. Therefore, the third nutrition formula can be recommended to people with kidney disease after clinical tests on humans.


World Health Organization. world Health Statistics 2023: monitoring health for the SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2023.

Health Ministry of Republic of Indonesia. Laporan Nasional riset kesehatan dasar 2018 [National report of basic health research 2018] [Internet]. Jakarta: Health Ministry of Republic of Indonesia; 2019. Available from: http://labdata.litbang.kemkes.go.id/images/download/laporan/RKD/2018/Laporan_Nasional_RKD2018_FINAL.pdf

Weldegiorgis M, Woodward M. The impact of hypertension on chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease is greater in men than women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Nephrol 2020;21:1–9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-02151-7

Wanigasuriya K. Update on uncertain etiology of chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka’s North-Central dry zone. MEDICC Rev 2014;16:61–5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.37757/MR2014.V16.N2.10

Mikolasevic I, Žutelija M, Mavrinac V, Orlic L. Dyslipidemia in patients with chronic kidney disease: etiology and management. Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis 2017;10:36–45. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/IJNRD.S101808

Kazanciog R. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease: an update. Kidney Int Suppl 2013;3:368–71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/kisup.2013.79

Luyckx VA, Tuttle KR, Garcia-Garcia G, et al. Reducing major risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl 2017;7:71–87. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kisu.2017.07.003

Syara A, Suhaimi S, Purma A, et al. Hubungan lama hemodialisis dengan nafsu makan pada pasien gagal ginjal kronik di Unit Hemodialisis Rumah Sakit Grandmed Lubuk Pakam tahun 2019 [The relationship between duration of hemodialysis and appetite in patients with chronic kidney failure at the hemodialysis unit at Grandmed Lubuk Pakam Hospital in 2019]. J Keperawatan dan Fisioter 2020;3:79–86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.35451/jkf.v3i1.537

Simatupang LL. Pengalaman pasien suku Batak Karo dengan gagal ginjal kronis (GGK) dalam menjalani hemodialisa di Murni Teguh Memorial Hospital [The experience of the Karo Batak tribe with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in undergoing hemodialysis at Murni Teguh Memorial Hospital]. Indones Trust Heal J 2018;1:18–25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.37104/ithj.v1i1.6

Nixon A, Wilkinson T, Young H, et al. Symptom burden in people living with frailty and chronic kidney disease. BMC Nephrol 2020;21:1–11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-02063-6

Shouket H, Gringart E, Drake D, Steinwandel U. “Machine-Dependent”: The lived experiences of patients receiving hemodialysis in Pakistan. Glob Qual Nurs Res 2022;9:1–13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/23333936221128240

Sari R, Sugiarto, Probandari A, Hanim D. Hubungan asupan energi, protein, vitamin B6, natrium dan kalium terhadap status gizi pada gagal ginjal kronik dengan hemodialisis [The relationship between energy intake, protein, vitamin B6, natrium and kalium and nutritional stutus in chronic kidney failure with hemodialysis]. J Akad Baiturrahim 2017;6:34–43.

Ko GJ, Obi Y, Tortoricci AR, Kalantar-Zadeh, K. Dietary protein intake and chronic kidney disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2017;20:77–85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000342

Upadhyay A, Karn SK. Brown rice: Nutritional composition and health benefits. J Food Sci Technol Nepal 2018;10:48–54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v10i0.19711

Kalantar-Zadeh K, Moore L, Tortorici A, et al. North American experience with low protein diet for non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease. BMC Nephrol 2016;17:90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12882-016-0304-9

Adair K, Bowden R. Ameliorating chronic kidney disease using a whole food plant-based diet. Nutrients 2020;12:1–17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041007

Watanabe S, Adachi K, Wakino S, et al. Dietary therapy with low protein “genmai” (brown rice) to improve the gut-kidney axis and reduce CKD progression. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2022;31:341–7.

Mahaliyana AS, Jinadasa BKKK, Liyanage NPP, et al. Nutritional composition of Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) caught from the oceanic waters around Sri Lanka. Am J Food Nutr 2015;3:106–11.

Uthpala TGG, Marapana RAUJ, Lakmini KPC, Wettimuny DC. Nutritional bioactive compounds and health benefits of fresh and processed cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Sumerianz J Biotechnol 2020;3:75–82.

Rompies R, Mayulu N, Nurkolis F, et al. Antioxidant capacity of snack cookies made from mango and pineapple fermentation. Foord Res 2021;5:145–8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26656/fr.2017.5(5).010

Lee YM, Kim SA, Lee IK, et al. Effect of a brown rice vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes: A 12-week randomized clinical trial. PLoS One 2016;11:1–14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155918

Mamikutty N, Thent ZC, Sapri SR, et al. The establishment of metabolic syndrome model by induction of fructose drinking water in male Wistar rats. Biomed Res Int 2014;263897:1–8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/263897

Omodanisi IE, Aboua YG, Oguntibeju OO. Assessment of the anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract of Moringa oleifera in diabetes-induced nephrotoxic male Wistar rats. Molecules 2017;22:1–16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22040439

Federer WT. Randomization and sample size in experimentation. In: The Food and Drug Administration Statistics Seminar, Washington, DC. Washington, D.C.: Cornell University; 1966. p. 1–15.

Bazzano T, Restel TI, Porfirio LC, et al. Renal biomarkers of male and female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) undergoing renal ischemia and reperfusion. Acta Cirúrgica Bras 2015;30:277–88. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-865020150040000007

Burukoglu D, Baycu C, Bektur E. Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats. Toxicol Ind Health. 2016;32(6):980–6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0748233714538484

Kawsar A, Alam T, Pandit D, Rahman M, Mia M, Talukdar A, et al. Status of disease prevalence, drugs and antibiotics usage in pond-based aquaculture at Narsingdi district, Bangladesh: A major public health concern and strategic appraisal for mitigation. Heliyon. 2022;8:e09060. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e09060

Beto JA, Schury KA, Bansal VK. Strategies to promote adherence to nutritional advice in patients with chronic kidney disease: a narrative review and commentary. Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis 2016;9:21–33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/IJNRD.S76831

Lim SM, Goh YM, Mohtarrudin N, Loh SP. Germinated brown rice ameliorates obesity in high-fat diet induced obese rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 2016;16:1–11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1116-y

Health Ministry of Republic of Indonesia. Tabel komposisi pangan Indonesia [Indonesian food composition table] [Internet]. Health Ministry of Republic of Indonesia. Jakarta: Health Ministry of Republic of Indonesia; 2020 [cited 2021 Oct 27]. Available from: https://perpustakaan.kemkes.go.id/inlislite3/uploaded_files/dokumen_isi/Monograf/Tabel Komposisi Pangan Indonesia.pdf

Park S, Lee S, Kim Y, et al. Causal effects of relative fat, protein, and carbohydrate intake on chronic kidney disease: a Mendelian randomization study. Am J Clin Nutr 2021;113:1023–31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa379

Ho HVT, Jovanovski E, Zurbau A, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the effect of konjac glucomannan, a viscous soluble fiber, on LDL cholesterol and the new lipid targets non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B1,2. Am J Clin Nutr 2017;105:1239–47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.142158

Messina CM, Arena R, Manuguerra S, et al. Valorization of side stream products from sea cage fattened bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus): Production and in vitro bioactivity evaluation of enriched ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Mar Drugs 2022;20:1–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/md20050309

Wu G. Dietary protein intake and human health. Food Funct 2016;7:1251–65. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/C5FO01530H

Kammoun K, Chaker H, Mahfoudh H, et al. Diet in chronic kidney disease in a Mediterranean African country. BMC Nephrol 2017;18:1–7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12882-017-0448-2

Koga N, Ogura J, Yoshida F, et al. Altered polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in relation to proinflammatory cytokines, fatty acid desaturase genotype, and diet in bipolar disorder. Transl Psychiatry 2019;9:1–9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-019-0536-0

Ali M, Hashim N, Aziz S, Lasekan O. Pineapple (Ananas comosus): A comprehensive review of nutritional values, volatile compounds, health benefits, and potential food products. Food Res Int 2020;137:109675. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109675

Muhammad ZA, Tashfeen A. Therapeutic uses of pineapple-extracted bromelain in surgical care - A review. J Pak Med Assoc 2017;67:121–5.

Sayago-Ayerdi S, García-Martínez DL, Ramírez-Castillo AC, et al. Tropical fruits and their co-products as bioactive compounds and their health effects: a review. Foods 2021;10:1–26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081952

Landu EA, Dewi NP, Dermiati T. Uji efek antidiabetes ekstrak kulit buah ketimun pada tikus putih jantan yang diinduksi streptocotocin [Test of the antidiabetic effect of cucumber peel extract on male white rats induced by streptocotocin]. Farmakol J Farm 2019;16:177–85.

Ferraz CR, Carvalho TT, Manchope MF, et al. Therapeutic potential of flavonoids in pain and inflammation: mechanisms of action, pre-clinical and clinical data, and pharmaceutical development. Molecules 2020;25:1–35. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25030762

Nusshag C, Stütz A, Hägele S, et al. Glomerular fltration barrier dysfunction in a self‑limiting, RNA virus‑induced glomerulopathy resembles fndings in idiopathic nephrotic syndromes. Sci Reports 2020;10:1–10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76050-0

Muntner P, Shimbo D, Carey RM, et al. Measurement of blood pressure in humans: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension 2019;73:e35–66. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1161/HYP.0000000000000087

Radajewska A, Szyller J, Niewiadomska J, et al. Punica granatum L. polyphenolic extract as an antioxidant to prevent kidney injury in metabolic syndrome rats. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2023;1–14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2023/6144967

Tasnim, T., & Saranani, S. (2024). Analysis of the effect of brown rice, tuna, cucumber, and pineapple treatment on proteinuria and albuminuria in Wistar Rats strain with chronic kidney disease. Journal of Biological Research - Bollettino Della Società Italiana Di Biologia Sperimentale. https://doi.org/10.4081/jbr.2024.11883

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Citations