Validity and reliability of a social skills scale among Chilean health sciences students: A cross-sectional study

Submitted: 21 January 2022
Accepted: 8 February 2022
Published: 14 March 2022
Abstract Views: 873
PDF: 374
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


Currently, there is a growing need to assess social skills in young university students since the use and application of these scales can provide benefits in different situations, such as work, education, clinical and psychological. The objective of the study was to verify the validity and reliability of a social skills scale (SS) for students from three professional health sciences programs in Chile. This information will provide understanding and development of SS among health care team members and between them and patients. A cross-sectional study was designed with 185 Chilean university students (141 males and 44 females). Students were recruited voluntarily from a private university in Chile. Ages ranged from 18 to 30 years old. Goldstein’s SS scale (consisting of six dimensions with a total of 50 questions) was used. It was administered virtually. Validity was verified by means of confirmatory factor analysis and reliability through internal consistency. The factor structure of the model confirmed the 50 questions and six dimensions of the scale. In general, the model reflected satisfactory values. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin’s (KMO) test for the adequacy (suitability) of the sample was 0.834, chi squared X2= 4344.8 (gl= 1425, p< 0.000). The comparative fit index (CFI) was 0.45, goodness of fit index (GFI) was 0.56, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) was 0.091, and the % of variance 54%. The communalities reflected values from 0.31 to 0.76. In addition, Cronbach’s Alpha values varied from 0.72 to 0.75. In its totality, the scale demonstrated a reliability of 0.75. The SS scale is valid and reliable. It can be used with students from nursing, kinesiology, and speech therapy programs. The results suggest the use and application of the scale with professionals working in higher education.

León del Barco, B. Salud mental en las aulas. Rev Estud Juv. 2009;84:66–83.

Junge C, Valkenburg PM, Deković M, Branje S. The building blocks of social competence: Contributions of the Consortium of Individual Development. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2020; 45: 100861. DOI:

Kinnaman J.E.S, Bellack AS. Social Skills. In: O’Donohue W., Fisher J.E., editors. Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Core Principles for Practice. Wiley; Hoboken, NJ, USA: 2012 DOI:

Arnold D.H, Kupersmidt J.B, Voegler-Lee M.E, Marshall N.A. The association between preschool children’s social functioning and their emergent academic skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 2012; 27(3): 376-386. DOI:

Del Giudice M. Middle Childhood: An Evolutionary-Developmental Synthesis. In N. Halfon, C.B., Forrest, R M., Lerner, E.M. Faustman (Eds.), Handbook of Life Course Health Development (pp. 95-107). Cham: Springer International Publishing. 2018.

Halle T.G, Hair E.C, Wandner L.D, Chien N.C. Profiles of school readiness among four-year-old Head Start children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 2012; 27(4): 613-626. DOI:

Leganés-Lavall E.N, Pérez-Aldeguer S. Social Competence in Higher Education Questionnaire (CCSES): Revision and Psychometric Analysis. Frontiers in psychology. 2016; 7: 1484. DOI:

Eslami A.A, Amidi Mazaheri M, Mostafavi F, Abbasi M.H, Noroozi E. Farsi version of social skills rating system-secondary student form: cultural adaptation, reliability and construct validity. Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2014 Summer;8(2):97-104

Rodriguez-Macayo E, Vidal-Espinoza R, Gómez-Campos R, Cossio-Bolaños M. Social Skills of Students from Educational Sciences: Validity, Reliability, and Percentiles for Evaluation. International Journal of Higher Education. 2021;10(3):259-297. DOI:

Goldstein A, Sprafkin R, Gershaw J, Klein P. Habilidades sociales y autocontrol en la adolescencia. Un programa de enseñanza. Barcelona: Martínez Roca. 1989.

Kline R.B. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling The Guilford Press, New York. 2011, p. 427.

Figueiredo-Filho D.B, Silva-Junior J.Á. Visão além do alcance: uma introdução à análise fatorial. Opin Pública. 2010; 16(1): 160-85. DOI:

Knekta E, Runyon C, Eddy S. One Size Doesn't Fit All: Using Factor Analysis to Gather Validity Evidence When Using Surveys in Your Research. CBE Life Sci Educ. 2019;18(1):rm1. DOI:

Hu L.T, Bentler P.M. Cutoff criteria for ft indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equ Modeling. 1999;6(1):1–55. DOI:

Schermelleh-Engel K, Moosbrugger H, Muller H. Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research. 2003; 8: 23–74

Dini A, Alves DF, Oliveira H, Guirardello E. Validez y confiabilidad de un instrumento de clasificación de pacientes pediátricos. Rev. Latino-Am. Enfermagem. 2014; 22(4): 598-603. DOI:

Miranda-Zapata E, Riquelme-Mella E, Cifuentes-Cid H, Riquelme-Bravo P. Análisis factorial confirmatorio de la Escala de habilidades sociales en universitarios chilenos. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología. 2014; 46(2): 73–82. DOI:

Waqas A, Farooq F, Raza M, Javed S.T, Khan S, Ghumman M.E, Naveed S, Haddad M. Validation of the Internet Addiction Test in Students at a Pakistani Medical and Dental School. Psychiatr Q. 2018;89(1): 235-247. DOI:

Streiner DL. Starting at the beginning: an introduction to coefficient alpha and internal consistency. J Pers Assess. 2003; 80: 99-103. DOI:

Ferketich S. Focus on psychometrics. Internal consistency estimates of reliability. Res Nurs Health. 1990; 13(6):437-40. DOI:

Henson R.K. Understanding Internal Consistency Reliability Estimates: A Conceptual Primer on Coefficient Alpha, Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development. 2001;34:3, 177-189. DOI:

Kourmousi N, Markogiannakis G, Lazaridis I, Kolliopoulou K, Papoutsaki K, Kounenou K, Tzavara C, Koutras V. Validity and Reliability of an Adaptation of Personal and Social Skills Scale for K-Students for Use in 2.691 Greek Elementary Students. Creative Education. 2017; 8: 2352-2376. DOI:

Gresham F.M, Elliott S.N. Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS) rating scales manual. Pearson. 2008.

Xie Q, Zhong X, Wang W.C.H, Lim C.P. Development of an item bank for assessing generic competences in a higher-education institute: a rasch modelling approach. High. Educ. Res. Dev. 2014; 33: 821–835. DOI:

Kinsella E.A, Smith K, Bhanji S, Shepley R, Modor A, Bertrim A. Mindfulness in allied health and social care professional education: a scoping review. Disabil Rehabil. 2020; 42(2): 283-295. DOI:

Karnieli-Miller O, Michael K, Gothelf A.B, Palombo M, Meitar D. The associations between reflective ability and communication skills among medical students. Patient Educ Couns. 2021; 104(1):92-98. DOI:

Rodriguez Macayo, E., Vidal-Espinoza, R., Gomez-Campos, R., Andruske, C. L., & Cossio-Bolaños, M. (2022). Validity and reliability of a social skills scale among Chilean health sciences students: A cross-sectional study. European Journal of Translational Myology, 32(1).


Download data is not yet available.