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Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the herbal agent in the prevention and treatment of bacterial cystitis in a rat model. Material and Methods: A total of twenty-eight male Sprague- Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Group-1 constituted the control group (operated and normal saline injected into the bladder, received only drinking water for 7 days); Group-2 constituted the no-treatment group (operated, E.coli J96 strain injected into the bladder, received only drinking water for 7 days); Group-3 constituted the short-term treatment (operated, E.coli J96 strain injected into the bladder, received the herbal agent added into drinking water for 7 days) and Group-4 constituted the long-term treatment (operated, E. coli J96 strain injected into the bladder, received herbal agent added into drinking water for 14 days). At the end of the pre-defined treatment periods of duration, the rats were sacrificed, urine samples collected from the bladder for culture and bladders were harvested for histopathological evaluation. Urine culture results and histopathological findings were comparatively evaluated between the groups. Results: Urine cultures were positive for implanted E. coli strains in 0%, 85.7%, 42.8% and 0% of rats in Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4, respectively (p = 0.001). Although histopathological evaluation revealed increased vascular dilation in the bladder specimens obtained from Group 2 and Group 3 (p = 0.028) no significant difference was noticed in level of inflammation (p = 0.610), edema (p = 0.754) and thickness of uroepithelium (p = 0.138). Conclusion: While long term (14 days) treatment with an herbal agent added into the drinking water resulted in complete clearance of urine from E. coli; shorter application of the agent revealed partial clearance. Further clinical studies are needed to support our results.
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