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We describe our experience in prostate biopsy using a new standardized cognitive fusion techniques, that we call “cognitive zonal fusion biopsy”. This new technique is based on two operative options: the first based on target biopsies, the Cognitive Target Biopsy (CTB) if the same target was detected with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and multiparametric magnetic resonance (mpMRI); the second based on saturation biopsies, the Zonal Saturation Biopsy (ZSB) on anatomical zone/s containing the region of interest if the same target was not evident with TRUS and MRI. We evaluated results of our technique compared to standard biopsy in order to identify clinically relevant prostate cancer. Methods: This is a single-center prospective study conducted in 58 pts: 25 biopsy-naïve, 25 with previous negative biopsy and in 8 with cancer in active surveillance. Based on mpMRI and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), all patients were scheduled for standard 12-core TRUS-guided biopsy. If mpMRI was suggestive or positive (PI-RADS 3, 4 or 5): patients underwent additional targeted 2 to 6 cores using cognitive zonal fusion technique. Results: 31/58 (53.4%) patients had a cancer. Our technique detected 80.6% (25 of 31) with clinically significant prostate cancer, leading to detection of insignificant cancer in 20%. Using standard mapping in MR negative areas we found 5 clinically significant cancer and 4 not significant cancers. MRI cancer detection rate was 18/31 (58.1%), and 9/18 (50%) in high grade tumors. Therefore MRI missed 50% of high grade cancers. The mean number of cores taken with cognitive zonal fusion biopsy was 6.1 (2-17), in addition biopsy sampling was done outside the ROI areas. Overall 15.4 cores (12-22) were taken. Cancer amount in Zonal Biopsy was larger than 7.3 mm (1-54.5) in comparison with 5.2 mm (1-23.5) in standard mapping. Largest percentage of cancer involvement with cognitive zonal fusion technique was detected in 19.4% vs 15.9%. Conclusions: Cognitive Zonal Saturation Biopsies should be used to reduce operator variability of cognitive fusion biopsy in addition to standard biopsy. Cognitive zonal biopsy based on mpMRI findings identifies clinically relevant prostate in 80%, has larger cancer extension in fusion biopsies than in random biopsies, and reduce the number of cores if compared to saturation biopsy.
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