Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing outcomes between Open Radical Cystectomy (ORC), Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy (LRC) and Robot-assisted Radical Cystectomy (RARC). RARC is to be compared to LRC and ORC and LRC compared to ORC. Material and methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted, collating studies comparing RARC, LRC and ORC. Surgical and oncological outcome data were extracted and a meta-analysis was performed. Results: Twenty-four studies were selected with total of 2,104 cases analyzed. RARC had a longer operative time (OPT) compared to LRC with no statistical difference between length of stay (LOS) and estimated blood loss (EBL). RARC had a significantly shorter LOS, reduced EBL, lower complication rate and longer OPT compared to ORC. There were no significant differences regarding lymph node yield (LNY) and positive surgical margins (PSM.) LRC had a reduced EBL, shorter LOS and increased OPT compared to ORC. There was no significant difference regarding LNY. Conclusion: RARC is comparable to LRC with better surgical results than ORC. LRC has better surgical outcomes than ORC. With the unique technological features of the robotic surgical system and increasing trend of intra-corporeal reconstruction it is likely that RARC will become the surgical option of choice.
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