Frailty and risk of mortality and hospitalization in nursing home residents affected by COVID-19
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a widespread condition in nursing homes (NHs). However, no research was made regarding frailty in NH residents during COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to assess whether frailty, assessed by the multidimensional prognostic index (MPI), can predict mortality/hospitalization in COVID-19 NH residents. A Cox’s regression analysis was used, reporting the results as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). 1146 NH residents affected by COVID-19 were included (mean age: 86 years; 75.4% females). During the followup period, we observed 286 deaths and 239 hospitalizations. Taking those with MPI <0.41 as reference, an MPI ≥0.50 was associated with a higher risk of death (HR=1.41; 95%CI: 1.07-1.85). Similar results were obtained using the MPI score increase in 0.10 points (HR=1.12; 95%CI: 1.03-1.23). Using hospitalization as outcome, only MPI score as continuous variable was associated with this outcome (HR=1.08; 95%CI: 1.002-1.17). In conclusion, frailty, as assessed by the MPI, was associated with a significant higher risk of mortality and hospitalization in NH residents affected by COVID-19 further indicating the necessity of assessing frailty in NH.
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