To date Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) is defined biologically, by neuropathologic change, and clinically treating cognitive impairment as a symptom of the disease rather than the definition of the disease. This approach underlines the complexity of such a disease and should enhance efforts to identify a sensitive but easy to get biomarker that will play a key role when innovative and efficacious treatment for AD will be found because, then it will be possible to treat this disease before the onset of clinical symptoms. Several biomarkers have been studied in cerebrospinal fluid: amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ1-42), total tau (t-tau), phospho-tau (ptau), Aβ1-42/t- tau ratio and Aβ1-42/p-tau ratio are currently revealed in clinical practice. In the next future, it would be useful to dose biomarkers in less invasive samples (such as blood or urine) as like as to use OMICs technologies, including proteomics and metabolomics, to find more predictive and diagnostic biomarkers for AD.
Alzheimer’s dementia; cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers; plasma biomarkers; metabolomics.