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Age-related and neuropathological changes in the olfactory, visual, auditory, and motor systems suggesting that sensory and motor changes may precede the cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by several years and may signify increase the risk of developing AD. In particular, peripheral age-related hearing impairment and social isolation have been identified as potentially modifiable dementia risk factors. The impact of age-related hearing and vision impairments on cognition appeared to be especially important among the oldest old suggesting a strong link of these connections with frailty, a critical intermediate status of the aging process at higher risk for negative health-related outcomes. The link among age-related hearing and vision impairments and cognition suggested the potential for correcting hearing and vision losses so that older subjects can function better cognitively with improved social involvement, quality of life, and lifetime cognitive health.
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