Lixus algirus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): biology, population fluctuation, infestation as affected by varieties, location, and planting dates in Morocco

Submitted: 30 August 2020
Accepted: 13 January 2021
Published: 26 April 2021
Abstract Views: 1642
PDF: 498
HTML: 23
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Authors

The stem borer, Lixus algirus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the major insect pest of faba bean in the Mediterranean region. This study investigates the field biology and fluctuation of L. algirus at Douyet research Station in Morocco during two cropping seasons 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 using two local faba bean varieties. The influence of sowing dates and varieties on the damage caused by L. algirus was investigated over different locations and seasons using a split-plot design. The overwintering adults appear in the field from February by feeding over the leaves of faba bean plants. Eggs are laid from Mid-February through late April and mostly during March. The egg peak ranged from 0.75 to 1.1 eggs per plant. The number of larvae increases during March and peaked in April. The larval peaks ranged between 0.45 to 1.5 larvae per plant. The larval development takes an average of 42 days. Pupation lasts about 21 days within stems. Adults emerged in early June. Life cycle duration was 80 days. One generation of L. algirus was recorded on faba bean varieties in Morocco. The mean number of eggs showed a positive correlation with total rainfall. The number of pupae and relative humidity was negatively correlated. Peach and almond leaves were the most preferred by the newely emerged L. algirus adult during the summer and early autumn period. Planting dates did not affect L. algirus infestation levels over all varieties tested and locations.

Dimensions

Altmetric

PlumX Metrics

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Citations

AMANUEL G., KÜHNE R.F., TANNER D.G., VLEK P.L.G., 2000 - Biological nitrogen fixation in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in the Ethiopian highlands as affected by P fertilization and inoculation. – Biol. Fert. Soils. 32(5): 353-359. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003740000258. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s003740000258
BARDNER R., 1983 - Pests of Vicia faba L. other than aphids and nematodes. In: The Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.). P.D. Hebblethwaite ed. - Butterworths, London, UK :371-390.
BOUKHRIS-BOUHACHEM S., 2013 - La recherche scientifique en entomologie depuis 1947 à l’INRAT : un itinéraire si riche et si glorieux, mais quel avenir ?. - Annales de l’INRAT, numéro spécial centenaire de l’INRAT. 86:191-212.
COERS P., TRAIA M., ZOUAGHI N., 1983 - Note d'information sur les pourcentages d'infestation des fèves et féveroles par les larves de Lixus spp. Notes techniques 85/1. Ministère de l’Agriculture, Station de la défense des Cultures du Nord-Beja. Projet Tuniso-Belge. Mimeographed hand-out
CARDONA C., JOUBI A., TAHHAN O., 1985 - Field biology of the faba bean stem borer, Lixus algirus L. (Coleoptera: curculionidae) in Syria [Vicia faba]. -FABIS. Newsletter. 12, :14-17.
CHAKIR S., 1992 - Observation préliminaire sur la biologie. Les dégâts de Lixus algirus L. (Col. Curculionidae) sur fèverole au Maroc. - Revue Scientifiques Technique ; Actes Inst.
Agron. Vet .12 (2): 41–44.
CAPINERA J.L., 2001 - Handbook of Vegetable Pests. - Academic Press, San Diego: 729 pp.
CREPONA K., MARGET P., PEYRONNET C., CARROUÉE B., ARESE P., DUC G. 2010 - Nutritional value of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds for feed and food. - Field. Crops. Res. 115: 329-339. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2009.09.016
DUNCAN D.B., 1955 - Multiple Range and Multiple F-Tests. - Biometrics. 11: 1-42. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3001478
DIEKMANN M., 1982 - Survey on pests and diseases of faba bean (Vicia faba) in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. - FABIS. Newsletter. 4: 44–46.
DARA SK., 2019 - The new integrated pest management paradigm for the modern age. - J. Integr. Pest Manag. 10:1-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jipm/pmz010
ELUWA MC., 1979 - Biology of Lixus camerunus Kolbe (Coleoptera Curculionidae): a major pest of edible vernonias (Compositae) in Nigeria. - Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 93:223-240.
FAO., 2016 - FAOSTAT. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/faostat, Accessed: 30 January 2016.
GÜLTEKIN L., 2008 - Hibernation places and behavior of the some weevil species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). - Caucasian Entomological. Bulletin. (CEB). 4(2): 209-213. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23885/1814-3326-2008-4-2-209-213
HOFFMANN A., 1954 - Coléoptères Curculionidae, 2e partie. Faune de France 59. - Fédération Française des Sociétés de Sciences Naturelles, Paris : 1208 pp.
HOFFMANN A., 1958. - Coléoptères Curculionidae, 3e partie. Faune de France 62. – Fédération Française des Sociétés de Sciences Naturelles, Paris : 632 pp.
HOFFMANN A., 1963 - Familie des Curculionides - Sous-Familie des Cleoninae. In: Balachowsky, A.S. ed. Entomologie Appliqée a l`agriculture. Traité. Tome 1. Coléoptères. Vol. 2. - Masson et Cie, Paris : 953–981.
HMEM BOURISSA M., BOUKHRIS-BOUHACHEM S., KRIDA G., SOUISSI R., KHARRAT M., 2010 - Incidence et Cycle Biologique d‘un Ravageur de la fève Lixus algirus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Association Tunisienne des Sciences Biologiques. Proceedings du 21ème Forum International des Sciences Biologiques, 15 – 18 Mars, Mahdia, Tunisie
ISART J., 1967 - El Lixus de las habas, Lixus algirus L., (Col., Curculionidae), - Graellsia. 23 :171-204.
ICARDA., 1982 - Food legumes improvement. In: Annual report.- Aleppe, Syria: 115.
KUSCHEL GA., 1995 - Phylogenetic Classification of Curculionoidae to Families and Subfamilies. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 14: 5-33.
KHAN H.R., PAULL J.G., SIDDIQUEC K.H.M., STODDARD F.L., 2010 - Faba bean breeding for drought-affected environments: A physiological and agronomic perspective. - Field. Crops. Res. 115: 279-286. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2009.09.003
LIOTTA G., 1965 - Observations on Lixus algirus L. (broad-bean stem borer). Bollettino dell'Istituto di entomologia agraria e dell'Osservatorio di fitopatologia di Palermo .5:105-128.
Meteoblue., 2018- http://www.meteoblue.com, Accessed :10 Jan 2018
MANZOOR Q., 2013 - Sustainable Water Use Securing Food Production in Dry Areas of the Mediterranean Region SWUP-MED Project; Deliverable 4.2: Identification of the implications of supplemental and deficit irrigation (Report).
MAALOUF F., NAWAR M., HAMWIEH A., AMRI A., ZONG X., SHIYING B., YANG T., 2013 - Faba Bean, in "Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement". -Amsterdam, Netherlands. Elsevier. 113-136. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-397935-3.00005-0
SAKR B.,1991 - The status of faba bean production in Morocco. In: Cubero J.I. ed., Saxena M.C. ed. Present status and future prospects of faba bean production and improvement in the Mediterranean countries. CIHEAM, Zaragoza. Options Méditerranéennes: Série A. Séminaires Méditerranéens; n. 10 :153-157
TRNKA F., STEJSKAL R., SKUHROVEC J., 2016 - The morphology of the immature stages of two rare Lixus species (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Lixinae) and notes on their biology. -ZooKeys. 604: 87–116. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.604.9018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.604.9018
WEIGAND S., BISHARA S.I., 1991 - Status of insect pests of faba bean in the Mediterranean region and methods of control. In: Cubero J.I. ed., Saxena M.C. ed. Present status and future prospects of faba bean production and improvement in the Mediterranean countries. CIHEAM, Zaragoza. Options Méditerranéennes: Série A. Séminaires Méditerranéens; n. 10 :67 - 74.
YIGEZU Y.A., EL-SHATER T., BOUGHLALA M., BISHAW Z., NIANE A., AW-HASSAN A., 2018 - Is there an economic case for legume-cereal rotation? A case of faba-beans in the Moroccan wheat based production systems. In: International Association of Agricultural Economists. Presented at the 30th International Conference of Agricultural Economists, Vancouver. Vancouver, British Columbia. 32pp.

Supporting Agencies

This research was partially funded by the project “India-Morocco Food Legumes Initiative – Morocco Component OCP Foundation, ID: 100161”.

How to Cite

Ait Taadaouit, N., El Fakhouri, K., Sabraoui, A., Rohi, L., & El Bouhssini, M. (2021). <em>Lixus algirus</em> L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): biology, population fluctuation, infestation as affected by varieties, location, and planting dates in Morocco. Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research, 53(1). https://doi.org/10.4081/jear.2021.9324