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Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the oldest and the most important forage legume. It has been cultivated for forage longer than any other crop. Diversity indices provide information about community composition. Diversity indices are measured by species richness and species evenness therefore, it could give us more ecological information rather than a simple species list in the fields. During 2015-2016, aphids and ladybird beetle’s abundance and diversity were monitored in alfalfa fields of Yasouj. Samplings were conducted with 150 plants in the alfalfa fields from mid-May to mid-November. Species richness was measured using Shannon and Simpson indices. In this study, six aphids and five coccinellid species were collected and identified. Among the collected aphid species, Aphis fabae (Scopoli, 1763) and Therioaphis maculata (Buckton, 1899) were most abundant in the fields. For coccinellids, Coccinella septempunctata L. was the most abundant species. Highest aphid species diversity was observed on 17 May 2016.
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