Wine Studies <p><strong>Wine Studies </strong>is a peer-reviewed, international multidisciplinary open-access Journal presenting and discussing new and significant researches related to the complex wine supply chain. The Journal will publish original research articles as its core material supplemented by reviews, editorials and point of views in a broad area of topics including: chemistry, biochemistry, sensory science, environmental impacts, by-products valorization, microbiology, production technologies, genetics, oenology, viticulture, medicine, public health, psychology, social sciences, economics and business.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Wine Studies 2039-4438 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Drying/encapsulation of red wine to produce ingredients for healthy foods Epidemiological evidence indicates that moderate consumption of red wine reduces the incidence of coronary disease, atherosclerosis, and platelet aggregation. Wine is very rich in antioxidant compounds because of their phenolic components. However, many people for ethnic, social or religious reasons do not consume wine. Drying/encapsulation of red wine in the presence of adequate carbohydrates leads to water and more than 99% of alcohol removal; a glassy amorphous microstructure is obtained in which the wine’s phenolic compounds are entrapped. The resulting product is a free flowing powder which could be used for the polyphenol enrichment of healthy foods and/or drink powders, as well as in the pharmaceutical industry. The wine industry may take advantage of the dried/encapsulated red wine using as a raw material red wines which have little commercial value for different reasons; <em>i.e.</em> poor quality due to raw material, unfavourable climatic conditions, or wines that suffered some alteration during the wine making process. Dry encapsulated wine may be a new alternative to red wines that cannot be sold as such for different reasons, and open new opportunities to diversify wine products. Izmari Jasel Alvarez Gaona Diego Rocha-Parra Maria C. Zamora Jorge Chirife ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-26 2018-03-26 6 1 10.4081/ws.2017.7126 Antioxidant activity and storage regime of defatted grape seeds flour In the present paper, we examined the antioxidant activity of a defatted grape seeds flour of different grape varieties locally grown in Bulgaria. The seeds are retrieved after alcoholic fermentation and the antioxidant activity of the flour was assessed by using four different methods, namely DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC. The results are presented in mM TE/g extract. The values are 586,08 (±41,55); 945,41 (±90,97); 553,39 (±45,57) and 667,73 (±64,30), respectively. The results are also showed in mM TE/g flour. The values are 58,67 (±4,16); 94,64 (±9,11); 55,40 (±4,56) and 66,85 (±6,44), respectively. During three-month storage of the flour in plastic bags (temperature 25 ºC and relative humidity 75%), no living cells of pathogenic organisms (<em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Salmonella </em>spp.) or apparent molding were detected. The flour particle size has not changed either. Adelina L. Bogoeva Albena G. Durakova Atanas I. Pavlov Velichka B. Yanakieva Radka Z. Vrancheva Bozhidar V. Bozadzhiev Kornelia B. Choroleeva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 6 1 10.4081/ws.2017.6695 Treatment with different fining agents of white musts from spoiled wine grapes Fining agents have evolved significantly over the last twenty years. The need for winemakers to have objective references about the new products has prompted this study. The experiment consists in comparing the new fining products (charcoal, pea proteins, derivatives of chitin and composite products generally mixing PVPP + various proteins + bentonite) with reference products such as casein and PVPP and with non-treated controls. Fining agents were applied during clarification of 15 different musts obtained from wine grapes affected by different degrees and types of rot: fresh and dry <em>Botrytis cinerea</em> rot, powdery mildew and Botrytis contaminated with other fungi (<em>Aspergillus</em>, <em>Penicillium</em>, Basidiomycetes), giving the bunches offflavours that were earthy and resembled fresh mushrooms. This study highlights the importance of good clarification of musts. The quality of control wines, without any treatment, increases with the clarity of the must. In most experiments, clarification of the must around 50 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) can eliminate or reduce any organoleptic defects in wine without fining. Use of pectolytic enzymes may be necessary in order to reach this level of clarity. The new allergen-free fining agents have the same effectiveness as reference products such as casein and polyvinylpolypyrolidone (PVPP). Composite products are more efficient than pea protein alone and less than products including charcoal. However, the improvement of aromatic quality goes hand in hand with loss of body and persistence. Eric Meistermann Michel Pinsun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-26 2018-03-26 6 1 10.4081/ws.2017.6871 Introducing renewable energy in vineyards and agricultural machinery: A way to reduce emissions and provide sustainability Climate change, depletion of nonrenewable resources in the current energies, pollution from them and the greater ecological awareness of the population, are factors that suggest the change of energy sources in business. The wine industry is concerned about sustainability and with a clear awareness of what climate change may mean for it. This sector is supposed to have a high receptivity to the implementation of clean energy, as this favours not only the environment but also the essence of its business. This work shows how the use of renewable energy, on a small scale, can be profitable in both vineyards and wineries. For this purpose, the European project LIFE REWIND (Renewable energy in the wine industry) has developed several actions, including the installation and operation of a prototype in a Spanish winery. This paper shows how to introduce renewable energy in wineries and vineyards in a profitable way, reducing the emissions of CO<sub>2</sub> associated to the activity and the product, without changing the processes of cultivation or production. Javier Carroquino Nieves García-Casarejos Pilar Gargallo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-26 2018-03-26 6 1 10.4081/ws.2017.6975 Do weak stationary magnetic fields affect the perceived astringency of red wine? To investigate claims that products containing weak stationary magnets can reduce the astringency of tannic red wine, a double- blind randomized trial was carried out, in which 96 paired tastings were conducted of magnetized and non-magnetized samples of a young Nebbiolo. The data showed no association between reported differences in astringency and actual difference in the magnetic treatments given to the wine (χ<sup>2</sup>=0.135, degrees of freedom=1, P=0.71). This study confirms an earlier work that magnets have no observable effect on red wine. Stephen Wesley Rowcliffe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-26 2018-03-26 6 1 10.4081/ws.2017.7172