Veins and Lymphatics 2019-10-02T17:45:32+02:00 Paola Granata Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Veins and Lymphatics</strong> is an online-only, international, Open Access peer-reviewed journal which publishes scientific papers about venous and lymphatic diseases. Open issues and debates about epidemiology, anatomy, pathophysiology, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of vein and lymphatic diseases are constantly present in our project. <a href="/index.php/vl/about">Read more</a></p> <p>This journal does not apply the article processing charge&nbsp;to Authors as it is supported by private funds.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Cerebral venous drainage through internal jugular vein 2019-10-02T17:45:32+02:00 Nadiya Y. Mohammed Giovanni Di Domenico Mauro Gambaccini <p>Internal jugular veins (IJVs) are the largest veins in the neck and are considered the primary cerebral venous drain for the intracranial blood in supine position. Any reduction in their flow could potentially results an increase in cerebral blood volume and intracranial pressure (ICP). The right internal jugular vein communicates with the right atrium via the superior vena cava, in which a functional valve is located at the union of the internal jugular vein and the superior vena cava. The atrium aspiration is the main mechanism governing the rhythmic leaflets movement of internal jugular vein valve synchronizing with the cardiac cycle. Cardiac contractions and intrathoracic pressure changes are reflecting in Doppler spectrum of the internal jugular vein. The evaluation of the jugular venous pulse provides valuable information about cardiac hemodynamics and cardiac filling pressures. The normal jugular venous pulse wave consists of three positive waves, <em>a</em>, <em>c</em>, and <em>v</em>, and two negative waves, <em>x</em> and <em>y</em>. A normal jugular vein gradually reduces its longitudinal diameter, as described in anatomy books; it is possible to segment IJV into three different segments J<sub>3</sub> to J<sub>1</sub>, as it proposed in ultrasound US studies and CT scan. In this review, the morphology and methodology of the cerebral venous drainage through IJV are presented.</p> 2019-10-02T11:25:40+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Neurofluids: A holistic approach to their physiology, interactive dynamics and clinical implications for neurological diseases 2019-09-18T17:43:56+02:00 Nivedita Agarwal Christian Contarino Eleuterio F. Toro <p>There is increasing interest in understanding the physiology of the extracellular fluid compartments in the central nervous system and their dynamic interaction. Such interest has been in part prompted by a vigorous resurgence of the role of the venous system, the recent discoveries of the meningeal lymphatics, the brain waste removal mechanisms and their potential link to neurological diseases, such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Ménière’s disease, migraine, small vessel disease, and most neurodegenerative diseases. The rigid cranial cavity houses several space-competing material compartments: the brain parenchyma (BP) and four extracellular fluids, namely arterial, venous, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF). During cardiac pulsations, the harmonious, temporal and spatial dynamic interaction of all these fluid compartments and the BP assures a constant intracranial volume at all times, consistent with the Monro-Kellie hypothesis. The dynamic interaction involves high-pressure input of arterial blood during systole and efflux of CSF into the spinal subarachnoid space (SSAS) followed by venous blood exiting directly into the vertebral and internal jugular veins towards the heart and intraventricular CSF displacing caudally towards the SSAS. Arterial pulsatile energy is transmitted to the BP that contributes to the smooth movement of fluids in and out of the brain. Perturbing any of these fluid compartments will alter the entire brain dynamics, potentially increase intracranial pressure, affect perfusion and hamper clearance capacity of metabolic waste. This review of all major extracellular fluid compartments within the brain, advocates a holistic approach to our understanding of the fluid dynamics, rather than focusing on a single compartment when analyzing neurological diseases. This approach may contribute to advance our comprehension of some common neurological disorders, paving the way to newer treatment options.</p> 2019-09-10T10:59:11+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An inguinal hernia or a greater saphenous vein aneurysm? A case report 2019-09-18T17:43:57+02:00 Seyhan Yılmaz Sabür Zengin Fatma Gürgen Feryaz Kızıltan <p>Superficial venous aneurysms, which are mostly asymptomatic and detected when patients were referred to for the treatment or evaluation of a femoral or inguinal hernia or soft tissue masses, are associated with a risk of developing pulmonary embolism. We aimed to present a case of a greater saphenous vein aneurysm of which its misdiagnosis possesses morbidity risk and confused with inguinal hernia. A 45- year-old female patient admitted to our clinic with swelling and pain in her right groin that had been present for about three years. The patient was also treated with inguinal hernia repair once due to her related complaints. A venous color doppler ultrasound was performed for differential diagnosis and a 70x31-mm sized fusiform proximal greater saphenous vein aneurysm and a grade-4 pathologic reflux in the right saphenofemoral junction was observed in the ultrasonographic examination. As a result, the swelling detected in the inguinal region should be evaluated in terms of possible superficial venous aneurysm, which may cause thromboembolism and ruptures, and this condition, which is frequently confused with inguinal hernia, should be taken into consideration and taken under operation as soon as possible in case of its presence.</p> 2019-09-10T10:46:07+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##