Translational Medicine Reports <p><strong>Translational Medicine Reports</strong> is a peer-reviewed international journal publishing articles in the field of molecular biology, biochemistry and nanotechnology applied to the treatment of chronic-degenerative diseases including diabetes, cancer, neurological, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Aim of the Journal is to contribute to bridging the gap between basic research and clinical applications from an interdisciplinary perspective. <strong>Translational Medicine Reports</strong> addresses researchers and managers in academia, biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry researchers, physician scientists, <em>etc.</em> Original Articles with interdisciplinary topics, Reviews, Editorials, From Bench-to-Bedside Articles, Conference Proceedings, and Letters to the Editor are welcome. Every article published in the Journal will be peer-reviewed by experts in the field and selected by members of the Editorial Board.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>The journal is completely free: no charge for publication, as it is supported by private funds.</strong></p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Translational Medicine Reports 2532-1250 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> An atypical manifestation of lymph node tuberculosis: a case report <p>Tuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Since the 80’s the new cases have been increasing especially in developed countries because of spreading of HIV-infection, immunodeficiency and immigration phenomenon. Cervical lymphadenitis is the most frequent localization of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Clinical manifestations consist in a slow growth and painless swelling of a single or multiple neck nodes, generally unilateral, with rare manifestations of fistulization and of systemic symptoms. Diagnosis is performed by FNAC or excisional biopsy integrated by Ziehl-Neelsen stain and Mycobacteria culture. A 57-year-old male patient affected by a right-side large laterocervical swelling. The patient referred that almost one month before he noted the onset of the lesion sizing about 1 cm, so he treated it with antibiotic association of amoxicillin and clavulanate acid without any improvement. The lesion quickly doubled its size, became painful and hyperemic the skin above it. Because of the clinical worsening, the patient undergone to neck ultrasonography that showed a neck mass sizing about 50 x 25 mm. He began a new antibiotic therapy with Ceftriaxone intra muscle, with no modifications of the lesion. Few days later his clinical conditions drastically got worse - increasing pain and skin fistulization. So he practiced a MRI of the neck that showed a massive suppurated lesion of the neck. The patient was hospitalized in our Otolaryngology Unit where he began a diagnostic iter in order to clarify the nature of the lesion and differentiate between neoplastic/lymphoproliferative lesion and an infective one. After a biopsy of the lesion, the hysthopatologic examination reported the presence of dense mononuclear cell infiltrate surrounding a set of Langerhans cells, so our diagnostic suspect was addressed to extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The authors report a case of a healthy man without risk factors for tuberculosis infection, come to our attention with a large and aggressive unilateral tubercular cervical lymphadenitis, skin fistulization and no systemic symptoms. To make diagnosis of tubercular lymphadenitis, we sustain that biopsy is still the gold standard if FNAC is doubt.</p> Stefania De Luca Giuliano Sequino Flavia Oliva Roberto Varriale Giovanni Motta Viviana Allocca Maria Cardone Marco Perrella Filippo Ricciardiello ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-30 2019-08-30 3 1 10.4081/tmr.8418 West Nile virus: an overview of current information <p>West Nile Virus (WNV) is a vector-borne flavivirus primarily infecting mosquitoes, birds, horses and humans. WNV is responsible for asymptomatic infections or a variety of clinical manifestations ranging from mild febrile illness to neuroinvasive disease. The frequency and severity of WNV-related disease have lately increased in the European Union and in the neighbouring countries, with particular concern for the Mediterranean area. This trend is probably connected to a raise in both average temperatures and rainfall, favourable factors for WNV spread. Due to the marked and expanding geographical distribution of the vector and the high endemic potential of WNV, this virus is worldwide considered an increasing public health apprehension. An augmented burden of WNV severe illness has been reported. Alarmingly, no vaccine or specific antiviral treatments are currently available for WNV infection. Hereafter, we will review the available information summarizing molecular biology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, epidemiology, diagnosis and therapy for WNV infection in humans.</p> Annalisa Chianese Debora Stelitano Roberta Astorri Enrica Serretiello Maria Teresa Della Rocca Colombina Melardo Mariateresa Vitiello Marilena Galdiero Gianluigi Franci ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-18 2019-06-18 3 1 10.4081/tmr.8145 Chikungunya virus: Update on molecular biology, epidemiology and current strategies <p>Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthropod-borne virus, is the aetiological agent of a disease characterized by several aspecific symptoms including fever, myalgia and arthralgia. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito of <em>Aedes</em> genus. This virus was first isolated in Tanzania in 1953, from which it spread to other African countries, Asia, Northern and Southern America, Europe and Oceania. Today, many human cases of CHIKV infection have been identified. The diffusion of CHIKV across the world, including Italy, is due to multiple factors amongst which the wide distribution of its vectors and high transmission efficiency play a crucial role. Currently, there are no specific treatments and effective vaccines against CHIKV; indeed, available therapies allow symptoms mitigation and some promising vaccines are undergoing clinical trials. The purpose of this review is to offer an updated picture of CHIKV molecular biology, epidemiology and vector distribution, clinical features and strategies for infection prevention and treatment.</p> Debora Stelitano Annalisa Chianese Roberta Astorri Enrica Serretiello Carla Zannella Veronica Folliero Marilena Galdiero Gianluigi Franci Valeria Crudele Mariateresa Vitiello ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-20 2019-06-20 3 1 10.4081/tmr.8156 Antibacterial and antiviral potential of neuropeptides <p>The emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria is a global health threat and the discovery of new antimicrobial agents is an absolute priority. In this context endogenous peptides are emerging as novel potential candidates. In this work, we assessed the antimicrobial effects of orexins and ghrelin neuropeptides against gram-negative (<em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Salmonella typhimurium</em>, <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>) and gram-positive (<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>) bacteria. Orexin-B and ghrelin showed a potent bactericidal effect at concentration equal to or greater than 25 μg/ml. No antimicrobial activity has been observed for orexin-A. Furthermore, we investigated the antiviral proprieties of the three peptides against <em>herpes simplex</em> virus 1 (HSV-1). We found that orexin-B, but not orexin-A is effective for HSV-1 infectivity inhibition.</p> Carla Zannella Debora Stelitano Veronica Folliero Luciana Palomba Tiziana Francesca Bovier Roberta Astorri Annalisa Chianese Marcellino Monda Marilena Galdiero Gianluigi Franci ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-13 2019-05-13 3 1 10.4081/tmr.8142 Airborne microbial flora in buffalo farms in a Mediterranean climate <p>The last few decades have seen an increase in intensive buffalo farms worldwide. Such industrialized activity entails human and animal potential health-related hazards as well as for the environment. Given the breadth of the issue, in this study we focused on gathering microbiological air sampling in the Southern Italian buffalo farms in order to obtain further information on airborne microbial flora. In details, we evaluated the bio-aerosol concentration of cultivable bacteria and fungi in ten different buffalo farms. There are evidences showing that exposure to organic dust may exacerbate asthma, just as it may cause mucous membrane irritation and chronic bronchitis. Likewise, studies show that inhaling noninfectious microorganisms and their components may cause inflammation of the respiratory tract. As a result, this is a significant health hazard to these farms’ workers as well as to rural residents living closely to them.</p> Debora Stelitano Giuseppe Squillaci Biagio Santella Annalisa Chianese Virginia D'Oriano Emiliana Finamore Mariateresa Vitiello Federica Maria Di Lella Marilena Galdiero Gianluigi Franci ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 3 1 10.4081/tmr.8146