Prenatal diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies: from fetoscopy to coelocentesis
AbstractPrenatal diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies involves the study of fetal material from blood, amniocytes, trophoblast coelomatic cells and fetal DNA in maternal circulation. Its first application dates back to the 70s and it involves globin chain synthesis analysis on fetal blood. In the 1980s molecular analysis was introduced as well as amniocentesis and chorionic villi sampling under high-resolution ultrasound imaging. The application of direct sequencing and polymerase chain reactionbased methodologies improved the DNA analysis procedures and reduced the sampling age for invasive prenatal diagnosis from 18 to 16- 11 weeks allowing fetal genotyping within the first trimester of pregnancy. In the last years, fetal material obtained at 7-8 weeks of gestation by coelocentesis and isolation of fetal cells has provided new platforms on which to develop diagnostic capabilities while non-invasive technologies using fetal DNA in maternal circulation are starting to develop.
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Copyright (c) 2014 Gianfranca Damiani, Margherita Vinciguerra, Cristina Jakil, Monica Cannata, Filippo Cassarà, Francesco Picciotto, Giovanna Schillaci, Valentina Cigna, Disma Renda, Aldo Volpes, Francesca Sammartano, Samuela Milone, Adolfo Allegra, Cristina Passarello, Filippo Leto, Antonino Giambona
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