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Beta thalassemia (β-thal) is one of the most common worldwide inherited hemoglobinopathies. Proper identification and diagnosis of hemoglobin (Hb) variants provide a major challenge. In this report, we describe a 1-year-old boy, presented with the diagnosis of β-TM (beta thalassemia major), has received regular blood transfusions. The molecular analysis revealed the presence of rare Hb Castilla [Beta 32(B14) Leu>Arg; HBB: c.98T>G] variant associated with β0 [IVS-I-1 (G>A); AG^GTTGGT->AGATTGGT beta0] (HBB:c.92+1G>A) Mutation in beta-globin (β- globin) gene.
To our knowledge, this is the first report of Hb Castilla [Beta 32(B14) Leu>Arg] in ExonII of β- globin gene which were found in Syrian male proband. However, we should investigate abnormal hemoglobins in patients with beta thalassemia to determine whether they have involvement with β-thalassemia mutations in the clinical case of the patients or not.