A review of the classification of nonstrabismic binocular vision anomalies

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Charles Darko-Takyi *
Naimah Ebrahim Khan
Urvashni Nirghin
(*) Corresponding Author:
Charles Darko-Takyi | chadarko@yahoo.com

Abstract

There are conflicting and confusing ideas in literature on the different types of accommodative and vergence anomalies as different authors turn to classify them differently. This paper sought to review literature on the different classifications and types of nonstrabismic binocular vision anomalies and harmonize these classifications. Search engines, namely Google scholar, Medline, Cinahl and Francis databases, were used to review literature on the classification of accommodative and vergence dysfunctions using keywords like binocular vision dysfunctions, classification of nonstrabismic binocular vision disorders or anomalies, accommodative disorders/anomalies classification and vergence disorders/anomalies classifications, and included works that described these anomalies. Nonstrabismic binocular vision anomalies are classified as accommodative and vergence anomalies. There are three different major types of accommodative anomalies, namely accommodative insufficiency, accommodative infacility (accommodative inertia), and accommodative excess (accommodative spasm), and seven different types of vergence anomalies (convergence insufficiency, convergence excess, divergence insufficiency, divergence excess, basic esophoria, basic exophoria and fusional vergence dysfunctions), which are functional in origin. Functionally, there is a commonly reported interaction between accommodative and convergence insufficiency referred to as pseudoconvergence insufficiency. Accommodative paralysis (subtype of accommodative insufficiency) and vergence anomalies – i.e., convergence paralysis, convergence spasm and divergence paralysis – are non-functional in origin with underlying systemic disease etiologies. Systemic convergence insufficiency, associated with subnormal accommodation, is a non-functional interaction between the accommodative and convergence insufficiency. The classification of nonstrabismic binocular vision anomalies is based on the description of the clinical signs and the underlying etiology either functional or non-functional in origin. Proper diagnosis and management involves investigation of the underlying etiology in addition to the battery of binocular vision test procedures.

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Article Details

Author Biographies

Charles Darko-Takyi, Department of Optometry, University of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa; Department of Optometry, University of Cape Coast

Optometrist

Naimah Ebrahim Khan, Department of Optometry, University of KwaZulu Natal

Discipline of Optometry, Lecturer

Urvashni Nirghin, Department of Optometry, University of KwaZulu Natal

Discipline of Optometry, Lecturer