Microbiologia Medica https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/mm <p><strong>Microbiologia Medica</strong> (MM) is the official publication of the Italian Association of Clinical Microbiologists (AMCLI). It publishes peer-reviewed papers that present basic and applied research relevant to therapy and diagnostics in the fields of: bacteriology, mycology, virology, parasitology, mycobacteriology, infectious diseases, chemotherapy, antimicrobial agents, immunology, autoimmunity and epidemiology.&nbsp; The journal publishes <em>Editorials, Reviews, Original Articles, Clinical Cases, Short Communications</em> and <em>Letters to the Editor</em>.&nbsp; MM is devoted to the diffusion of any progress related to all aspects of clinical microbiology. Reports about new techniques, methods and processes dealing with quality control procedures are also considered. Papers on isolation, identification and epidemiology of microorganisms as index of nosocomial infections, or reports on microorganisms collected from animals and environment as vehicles of antibiotic resistant strains are also welcome.</p> <p>The journal is completely free (there are no charges for submission and/or publication), since it it supported by institutional funds and provides immediate Open Access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><strong><a href="/index.php/mm/about/submissions">Submit your paper to our journal!</a></strong></p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Microbiologia Medica 2280-6423 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> La rivista che vorrei https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/mm/article/view/7997 <p>Le riviste scientifiche giocano da sempre un ruolo fondamentale nella diffusione delle conoscenze, in ogni campo disciplinare, e l’identità di una Associazione scientifica è veicolata e rafforzata anche da una propria rivista. Microbiologia Medica (MM), organo ufficiale dell’Associazione Microbiologi Clinici Italiani (AMCLI), per il fatto di essere espressione di una grande associazione professionale, costituisce una realtà particolarmente significativa nel panorama editoriale, molto variegato, della microbiologia italiana.[...]</p> Ersilia Vita Fiscarelli ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 33 1 10.4081/mm.2018.7997 Microbial biofilm: a “sticky” problem https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/mm/article/view/7851 <p>Bacteria can form, on virtually any surface, single- and multispecies biofilms intrinsically resistant/tolerant to antibiotics and elusive of the host immune response. The study of bacterial biofilm development has, therefore, received great interest over the past 20 years and is motivated by the well-recognized role of these multicellular communities in infectious diseases. In this review article, we provide a synopsis of (i) biofilm formation mechanisms; (ii) biofilm clinical significance and underlying mechanisms; (iii) the current methodologies for microbiological diagnosis of biofilm-related infections; and (iv) current and future therapeutic strategies to combat biofilm-associated infections.</p> Arianna Pompilio Giovanni Di Bonaventura ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 33 1 10.4081/mm.2018.7851 Molecular epidemiology of non-viral sexually transmitted infections in the central Alpine province of Bolzano, northern Italy from April 2016 to March 2017 https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/mm/article/view/7852 <p><em>Chlamydia trachomatis</em>, <em>Neisseria gonorrhoeae</em>, <em>Trichomonas vaginalis,</em> <em>Ureaplasma parvum</em>, <em>Ureaplasma urealyticum</em>, <em>Mycoplasma hominis</em> and <em>Mycoplasma genitalium</em> are established or presumed as (??) STI pathogens. The present study aims &nbsp;at ng describing the one-year molecular epidemiology of these seven pathogens in the Province of Bolzano, Northern Italy. From April 2016 to March 2017, a total of&nbsp; 2,949 patients, mainly females, were enrolled and 3,427 urine, vaginal, endocervical and/or urethral samples were subjected to simultaneous analysis of the seven pathogens by means of Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (Anyplex<sup>TM</sup> II STI-7 Detection Kit Seegene, Seoul, Korea). At least one of the seven microorganisms was detected in 40.7% of patients, with an uneven distribution: 43.1% in females (F) and 29.8% (p&lt;0.001) in males (M). The prevalence of microorganisms was as follows: 30.3% <em>U. parvum</em> (F: 35.6%, M: 8.3%), 6.9% <em>U. urealyticum</em> (F: 6.8%, M: 7.0%), 4.9% <em>M. hominis</em> (F: 5.4%, M: 2.3%), 4.9% <em>C. trachomatis</em> (F: 3.4%, M: 11.4%), 1.1% <em>M. genitalium</em> (F: 1.0%, M: 1.2%), 1.2% <em>N. gonorrhoeae</em> (F: 0.17%, M: 5.6%) and 0.40% <em>T. vaginalis</em> (F: 0.38%, M: 0.53%). Mixed infections were detected in 7.4% of patients. The highest prevalence was observed for <em>U. parvum</em>, followed by <em>U. urealyticum</em> and <em>M. hominis </em>and a significant &nbsp;presence of multi-pathogen infections was registered.</p> Richard Aschbacher Francesca Romagnoli Elisa Masi Valentina Pasquetto Franco Perino Klaus Eisendle Monica Braghetto Sergio Messini Serena Delbue Elisabetta Pagani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 33 1 10.4081/mm.2018.7852 Antibiotic susceptibility profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from acute respiratory infection in Dakar: a cross sectional study https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/mm/article/view/7862 <p><em>Streptococcus pneumoniae</em> is a pathogen causing pneumonia, meningitis, otitis and bacteraemia. Nowadays, <em>S</em>. <em>pneumoniae</em> is developing antibacterial resistance, particularly for those with reduced susceptibility to penicillin. The objective of this study was to assess the susceptibility profile of <em>S. pneumoniae</em> strains isolated from acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in children younger than 5 years of age in Dakar, Senegal. <em>S. pneumoniae</em> strains were isolated from broncho-alveolar lavages (BALs), nasopharyngeal swabs, and middle ear secretion from children in the Paediatric Department of Abass Ndao University Teaching Hospital and Paediatric Department of Roi Baudouin Hospital in Dakar, Senegal. The strains were cultivated on Columbia agar supplemented with 5% of horse blood and gentamicin (6 mg/L). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using E-test method. A total of 34 strains of <em>S. pneumoniae</em> were isolated and identified in this study, among them 7 strains (20.58%) showed penicillin-resistance. Antibiotics such as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (MIC90=0.036 μg/mL), cefuroxim (MIC90=0.38 μg/mL), cefixim (MIC90=1.5 μg/mL), as well as macrolides (azithromycin MIC90=1.5 μg/mL, clarithromycin MIC90=0.125 μg/mL) and fluoroquinolone (levofloxacin MIC90=1 μg/mL, ofloxacin MIC90=2 μg/mL) were mostly active. However, all <em>S</em>. <em>pneumoniae</em> strains were resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (MIC90: 32 μg/mL). Except of <em>S. pneumoniae</em> strains penicillin-resistance or reduced susceptibility, most strains were susceptible to β-lactams antibiotics commonly used in ARI treatment. Continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance patterns of pneumococcus strains is still crucial for effective control of ARIs in children.</p> Abdoulaye Diop Makhtar Camara Abdoulaye Seck Assane Dieng Amadou Diop Amary Fall Cherif Ibrahima. Khalil Diop Djibril Boiro Jean Baptisse Niokhor Diouf Ibrahima Sene Modou Gueye Mbayame Niang Cheikh Saad Bouh Boye ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 33 1 10.4081/mm.2018.7862 Globalization effects on the reports of non-endemic parasitosis in Italy https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/mm/article/view/7932 <p>Protozoa and helminths are responsible for several intestinal parasite infections (IPIs). Generally, helminth infections are very unsafe but scarcely reported in high-income countries, while protozoa and helminth co-infections are usually reported in children living in inadequate hygienic-sanitary conditions and in rural areas. However, the impact of growing globalization, intense travelling, international adoptions and high levels of immigrants and refugees has significantly incremented the incidence of orofecal parasitosis in non-endemic areas. Although most IPs clear without treatment when population, even children, emigrate from endemic to different geographical areas, some IPIs such as strongyloidiasis may persist for decades as subclinical infections or as low-grade disease with nonspecific clinical manifestations, unless to reappear under impairment conditions. Herein we report an unusual case of <em>Giardia lamblia</em> and <em>Trichuris</em> spp. chronic asymptomatic co-infection in a healthy adopted Romanian child, living in a Central Italy rural area, and a hidden case of <em>Strongyloides stercoralis</em> in an adopted Burundian child, resident in South Italy, long misdiagnosed as a recurrent undefined dermatitis. Our report suggests the need to review primary care practitioner guidelines and children’s hospital procedures for appropriate IPIs screening and follow-up, hence providing new screening and prevention strategies, in agreement with international guidelines.</p> Giorgia Bracaglia Livia Mancinelli Stefania Ranno Federica Del Chierico Hyppolite K. Tchidjou Ottavia Porzio Andrea Onetti Muda Lorenza Putignani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 33 1 10.4081/mm.2018.7932