Dientamoeba fragilis is a worldwide distributed protozoon which is now estimated responsible of enteric diseases in humans. A wide spectrum of intestinal symptoms has been described: diarrhoea (acute or prolonged), flatulence, abdominal pains, and not specific bowel syndrome; however, asymptomatic infection has been also reported. D. fragilis is still not well know because only the delicate trophozoite stage has been demonstrated in stool samples and definitive identification is based on permanent stains, usually not performed in ova and parasites (O&P) examinations, in Italy.D. fragilis is difficult to cultivate but molecular techniques, such as PCR, appear promising for a sure diagnosis of this protozoan infection.The epidemiology of dientamoebiasis is not clear too, and this paper presents preliminary results concerning the presence of D. fragilis in swine faeces in order to evaluate the possible role of pigs as reservoir of the parasite. So, 121 stool specimens of swine population were examined using Giemsa permanent stain and D. fragilis was observed in 53 stool specimens (43.8%). Other consideratioona are reported too.
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