Exploration of the antibacterial and chemical potential of some Beninese pharmacopoiea traditional plants

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Boris Lègba
Victorien Dougnon *
Angèle Ahoyo
Jerrold Agbankpè
Gildas Hounmanou
Alidah Aniambossou
Edna Hounsa
Kafayath Fabiyi
Affousssath Amadou
Phénix Assogba
Honoré Bankolé
Jacques Dougnon
Lamine Baba-Moussa
(*) Corresponding Author:
Victorien Dougnon | victorien88@hotmail.com

Abstract

Objectives. This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial and chemical properties of some medicinal plants used in the fight against enteropathogens in Benin.
Methods. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Senna siamea, Uvaria chamae, Lantana camara and Phyllantus amarus were tested on 10 bacterial strains. Well diffusion technique, coupled with the microdilution determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (CMB) was used for antibacterial testing. The larval cytotoxicity was evaluated by using Artemia salina crustacean larvae. flavonoids and polyphenols were also assayed by the method using aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) and the method using the folin-Ciocalteu reagent, respectively.
Results. The results of the study revealed that extracts had an effective antibacterial activity at 100 mg/mL, with MIC between 100 and 25 mg/mL and CMB between 100 and 50 mg/mL. The inhibition diameters of the extracts varied between 7.5 and 21 mm. The ethanolic extract of Phyllantus amarus leaves showed the best antibacterial activity. None of the extracts tested was found to be cytotoxic at the dose of 20 mg/mL. The aqueous Uvaria chamae root extract has the highest polyphenol content (231.896552±0.27586207 in μg EAG/100 mg extract), whereas the aqueous leaf extract of Uvaria chamae is the richest in flavonoids (41.061082 0.43180737 in μg ER/100 mg of extract).
Conclusions. These interesting results can be used in the development of improved traditional medicines against enteropathogens.

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