Insecticide susceptibility tests conducted in Kamhororo, Masakadza and Chilonga villages in Zimbabwe during the 2011 malaria period

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N. Lukwa *
S. Sande
P. Munosiyei
M. Zimba
(*) Corresponding Author:
N. Lukwa | nziraa33@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

Insecticide susceptibility tests using World Health Organization papers treated with 4% dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane (DDT), 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.05% lambda-cyhalothrin, 0.5% etofenprox, 0.15% cyfluthrin and 0.75% permethrin were conducted in Kamhororo, Masakadza and Chilonga villages, Zimbabwe. Three to 5-day old female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato adult mosquitoes were used. Deltamethrin knocked down 100% of the mosquitoes from Kamhororo, Masakadza and Chilonga at 35 min exposure. DDT did not knock down 100% of the mosquitoes from Kamhororo and Masakadza but did so in Chilonga. One hundred percent knockdown was achieved for cyfluthrin when exposed to mosquitoes from Kamhororo (60 min), Masakadza (25 min) and Chilonga (25 min). Etofenprox knocked down 100% of the mosquitoes collected from Kamhororo (30 min), Masakadza (30 min) and Chilonga (55 min). Knockdown of mosquitoes due to deltamethrin, DDT, cyfluthrin, permethrin; lambda-cyhalothrin and etofenprox were different at different observation times. One hundred percent mortality due to deltamethrin, DDT, etofenprox, lambdacyhalothrin and cyfluthrin was recorded for mosquitoes collected from all the 3 sites. One hundred percent mortality due to pemethrin was recorded for mosquitoes collected from Kamhororo and Chilonga but mortality was 98.5% for those collected from Masakadza. No knockdown or mortality occurred in the controls from each locality. The kd50 (knockdown of 50% of the mosquitoes) values were 24.4-73.7 min (DDT), 8-13 min (pemethrin), 9.4-16.3 min (cyfluthrin), 9.4-14.4 min (etofenprox), 8.7-13 min (lambda-cyhalothrin) and 12.1-15.9 min (deltamethrin). The kd90 (knockdown of 90% of the mosquitoes) values were 45.6-199.5 min (DDT), 14.7-26.5 min (pemethrin), 16.5-34.9 min (cyfluthrin), 21.8-24.4 min (etofenprox), 16.3-31.6 min (lambdacyhalothrin) and 21-25.3 min (deltamethrin). No insecticide resistance was recorded from the 3 sites.

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Author Biographies

N. Lukwa, National Institute of Health Research, Causeway, Harare

Medical Entomologist

S. Sande, National Malaria Control Programme, Causeway, Harare

Vector Control Officer

P. Munosiyei, Bindura University of Science Education, Bindura

Lecturer in Entomology

M. Zimba, University of Zimbabwe, Biological Sciences, Mount Pleasant, Harare

Lecturer in Entomology