Journal of Biological Research - Bollettino della Società Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale <p>The <strong>Journal of Biological Research – Bollettino della <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Società Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale</a></strong> is one of the oldest journals in Biology. Founded in 1925 the journal is available in <a href="[jour]" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Medline</a> until 2001 and <a href=";origin=resultslist" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scopus</a> since 2014. The <strong>Journal of Biological Research – Bollettino della&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Società Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale</a></strong>&nbsp;is an online-only peer-reviewed journal which welcomes papers dealing with any aspect of experimental biology. Papers concerning clinical topics can be accepted only if they include experimental laboratory data. Original communications, review articles or short communications may be submitted.</p> en-US <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> (Francesca Baccino) (Tiziano Taccini) Fri, 11 Jan 2019 16:49:20 +0100 OJS 60 Short-term physiological responses to drought stress in seedling of tropical and temperate maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars <p>Understanding of the response of tropical and temperate maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) to drought is the first step for tolerant temperate maize improvement. Eight maize hybrids were used to investigate physiology responses under drought stress, four of them were tropical maize and the others were temperate maize. Results showed that there were different drought tolerances but similar trends in both tropical maize and temperate maize. Gas exchange parameters revealed different strategies of maize under the stress. In our study, most of the temperate hybrids maintained open stomata to keep a higher photosynthesis rate at the beginning of stress, while the other hybrids decreased stomatal conductance. Compared to temperate maize, the tropical maize had higher antioxidase activity and greater physiological parameter variation among hybrids. KS5731 and ZD309 had stronger drought resistance among tropical and temperate maize hybrids separately. Tolerant hybrids maintained active photosynthesis, have higher osmotic adjustment ability and antioxidase activities but lower malonaldehyde content than the sensitive ones. Our results led to a better understanding of the physiological responses of tropical and temperate maize plants to drought stress and may provide an insight of breeding for drought resistance in maize.</p> Pu Zhao, Jin Wang, Niran Juntawong, Chokechai Aekatasanawan, Prasart Kermanee, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Yinsuo Jia, Chunhong Ma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 08 Mar 2019 13:51:50 +0100 Chiari I malformation, syringomyelia and papilledema: a malformative complex connected to oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum <p>The authors discuss the association of papilledema with Chiari I malformation (CMI) and syringomyelia on the basis of a clinical case studied by radiology, immunology and biochemistry methods. In the presence of normal haematology, blood immunology and biochemistry, clinical signs of headache and papilledema associated to hemifacial asymmetry, blind neck fistulas, malformed ears and spinal abnormalities (symptoms of oculo-auricolo- vertebral spectrum - OAVS), were observed. Magnetic resonance images and computed tomography demonstrated the occurrence of lowered cerebellar tonsils, but with values lower than those typical of the CMI syndrome and syringomyelia. The authors concluded for a minor form (<em>benign ectopia</em>) in the CMI syndrome, associated to papilledema and syringomyelia, and hypothesize an unique pathogenetic mechanism for this complex, connected to neural crest cell development and to OAVS, as extension of this spectrum. The authors underline the relevance of the facial/neck lateral signs for the diagnosis of OAVS associated to brain stem pathology and CMI.</p> Agostino Berio, Giacomo Garlaschi, Giuseppe Mangiante, Gian Luigi Mariottini, Attilia Piazzi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 08 Mar 2019 14:08:44 +0100 Safety evaluation and analgesic studies of defatted methanol extract of Capparis spinosa L. (Capparidaceae) fruits and roots bark in albino wistar rats <p><em>Capparis spinosa</em> L. is an indigenous plant from Algeria but has widespread distribution in Mediterranean area. It is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases by the local populations. The purpose of this study is to test toxicity and analgesic effect of defatted methanol extract of fruits and roots bark of this plant in albino Wistar rats. To evaluate the acute toxicity, 500-5000 mg/kg body weight of each extract was administered orally to rats; symptoms of toxicity and mortality were observed for 72 h. The results revealed the absence of toxicity for both extracts. In subchronic toxicity, rats were treated, with doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day of each extract, they were surveyed for four weeks, no symptoms of toxicity were observed. These results were confirmed by the blood biochemical analyses and the histopathology study of liver and kidney. Peripheral analgesic activity was tested orally at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg for each extract against pain induced by acetic acid. The dose of 200 mg/kg of both extracts presented significant analgesic effect, compared to the positive control; the acetylsalicylic acid.</p> Asma Meddour, Mouloud Yahia, Leila Hambaba ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 18 Mar 2019 08:50:00 +0100 "Drink and sleep like a fish": goldfish as a behavior model to study pharmaceutical effects in freshwater ecosystems <p>Behavior is a mechanism through which organisms react to internal and external stimuli to best cope with challenges in an ever-changing environment. The study of animal behavior patterns in response to environmental stress/threats, is a relatively new and unexplored topic. The aim of this study is to offer a modest contribution in explaining the effects of pharmaceutical pollutants found in freshwater ecosystems, using the behavior patterns and physiology of <em>Carassius auratus</em>. Behavior changes were evaluated through swimming patterns, opercula and pectoral response, and rheological aggressivity. Animals were exposed for 5 weeks to water (as control), ethanol (EtOH, 0.25 and 1%, v/v), fluoxetine (FLX, 100 μg/L) and caffeine (CAF, 50 mg/L) and their short-term responses were recorded. The video has been analyzed using the open-sourced software program Track3D and EthoVision XT, which objectively quantified swimming and social behaviors. In all treatments, fish showed significantly (P&lt;0.01) high level of stress, aggressivity and hyperactivity, compared to control. An interesting fact was that for each pollutant, fish exhibited different swimming patterns, from the normal one. These changes in the nervous system such as stressed behavior, irregular swimming patterns, hyperactivity and aggression, are consequences of pharmaceutical pollution in freshwater bodies and as such they can be used as suitable early physiological response biomarkers to environmental stress. Monitoring of altered behavior is a great early indicator of water pollution, which can easily be applied in the best aquaculture and fishery practices.</p> Valbona Aliko, Enis Mehmeti, Mihallaq Qirjo, Caterina Faggio ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 11 Jan 2019 16:49:00 +0100