Journal of Biological Research - Bollettino della Società Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale 2019-07-21T17:42:24+02:00 Francesca Baccino Open Journal Systems <p>The <strong>Journal of Biological Research – Bollettino della <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Società Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale</a></strong> is one of the oldest journals in Biology. Founded in 1925 the journal is available in <a href="[jour]" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Medline</a> until 2001 and <a href=";origin=resultslist" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scopus</a> since 2014. The <strong>Journal of Biological Research – Bollettino della&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Società Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale</a></strong>&nbsp;is an online-only peer-reviewed journal which welcomes papers dealing with any aspect of experimental biology. Papers concerning clinical topics can be accepted only if they include experimental laboratory data. Original communications, review articles or short communications may be submitted.</p> Short-term physiological responses to drought stress in seedling of tropical and temperate maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars 2019-07-21T17:42:23+02:00 Pu Zhao Jin Wang Niran Juntawong Chokechai Aekatasanawan Prasart Kermanee Sittiruk Roytrakul Yinsuo Jia Chunhong Ma <p>Understanding of the response of tropical and temperate maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) to drought is the first step for tolerant temperate maize improvement. Eight maize hybrids were used to investigate physiology responses under drought stress, four of them were tropical maize and the others were temperate maize. Results showed that there were different drought tolerances but similar trends in both tropical maize and temperate maize. Gas exchange parameters revealed different strategies of maize under the stress. In our study, most of the temperate hybrids maintained open stomata to keep a higher photosynthesis rate at the beginning of stress, while the other hybrids decreased stomatal conductance. Compared to temperate maize, the tropical maize had higher antioxidase activity and greater physiological parameter variation among hybrids. KS5731 and ZD309 had stronger drought resistance among tropical and temperate maize hybrids separately. Tolerant hybrids maintained active photosynthesis, have higher osmotic adjustment ability and antioxidase activities but lower malonaldehyde content than the sensitive ones. Our results led to a better understanding of the physiological responses of tropical and temperate maize plants to drought stress and may provide an insight of breeding for drought resistance in maize.</p> 2019-03-08T13:51:50+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Chiari I malformation, syringomyelia and papilledema: a malformative complex connected to oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum 2019-07-21T17:42:22+02:00 Agostino Berio Giacomo Garlaschi Giuseppe Mangiante Gian Luigi Mariottini Attilia Piazzi <p>The authors discuss the association of papilledema with Chiari I malformation (CMI) and syringomyelia on the basis of a clinical case studied by radiology, immunology and biochemistry methods. In the presence of normal haematology, blood immunology and biochemistry, clinical signs of headache and papilledema associated to hemifacial asymmetry, blind neck fistulas, malformed ears and spinal abnormalities (symptoms of oculo-auricolo- vertebral spectrum - OAVS), were observed. Magnetic resonance images and computed tomography demonstrated the occurrence of lowered cerebellar tonsils, but with values lower than those typical of the CMI syndrome and syringomyelia. The authors concluded for a minor form (<em>benign ectopia</em>) in the CMI syndrome, associated to papilledema and syringomyelia, and hypothesize an unique pathogenetic mechanism for this complex, connected to neural crest cell development and to OAVS, as extension of this spectrum. The authors underline the relevance of the facial/neck lateral signs for the diagnosis of OAVS associated to brain stem pathology and CMI.</p> 2019-03-08T14:08:44+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Safety evaluation and analgesic studies of defatted methanol extract of Capparis spinosa L. (Capparidaceae) fruits and roots bark in albino wistar rats 2019-07-21T17:42:20+02:00 Asma Meddour Mouloud Yahia Leila Hambaba <p><em>Capparis spinosa</em> L. is an indigenous plant from Algeria but has widespread distribution in Mediterranean area. It is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases by the local populations. The purpose of this study is to test toxicity and analgesic effect of defatted methanol extract of fruits and roots bark of this plant in albino Wistar rats. To evaluate the acute toxicity, 500-5000 mg/kg body weight of each extract was administered orally to rats; symptoms of toxicity and mortality were observed for 72 h. The results revealed the absence of toxicity for both extracts. In subchronic toxicity, rats were treated, with doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day of each extract, they were surveyed for four weeks, no symptoms of toxicity were observed. These results were confirmed by the blood biochemical analyses and the histopathology study of liver and kidney. Peripheral analgesic activity was tested orally at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg for each extract against pain induced by acetic acid. The dose of 200 mg/kg of both extracts presented significant analgesic effect, compared to the positive control; the acetylsalicylic acid.</p> 2019-03-18T08:50:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Morpho-physiological effect of selenium on salinity-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 2019-07-21T17:42:18+02:00 James Oludare Agbolade Oyinade David Abiodun Ajiboye Joseph Kioko Okanlawon Jolayemi Idowu Olawuni Mercy Ojo Gbenga Akomolafe Modinat Adekoya Ronke Komolafe <p>Wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em>) is an important grains plant that can sustain food security and holds high nutritional values to the benefit of mankind. Activities of salinity in arid and semi-arid region have drastically reduced the production of wheat grains. Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient required by plants in small concentration to aid their growth. This study was aimed at identifying impact of Se on salinity-stressed wheat plants. Wheat seeds were soaked for eight hours in 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/L Selenite concentrations and five sterilize-treated seeds were sown in 5 kg quantity of soil. This was subjected to 0, 100 and 200 mM of Sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, respectively. The study revealed that Se increased production/expression of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes under salinity stress, thus growth of wheat plants was improved. Although the effects of Se on the wheat plants were concentration-based, nevertheless low lipid peroxidation and plant growth at 150 mg/L of Se were observed. Toxicity of Se to wheat plant could occur when there is no salinity stress. Therefore, farmers are encouraged to prime wheat seeds with 150 mg/L Se when cultivating saline soils.</p> 2019-06-21T15:39:34+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The effect of Citrullus colocynthis extracts on Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, normal gingival fibroblast and breast cancer cells 2019-07-21T17:42:17+02:00 Hossein Seifi Kafshgari Mohsen Yazdanian Reza Ranjbar Elaheh Tahmasebi Seyed Rahim Ghazi Mirsaeed Hamid Tebyanian Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh Hamid Reza Goli <p>Tooth decay is one of the most common chronic diseases in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of <em>Citrullus colocynthis</em> extracts on the growth of <em>Streptococcus mutans</em> and <em>Candida albicans</em> and their cytotoxic effects on normal gingival fibroblast cells and breast cancer cells. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of <em>C. colocynthis</em> fruit were evaluated by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBCs)/minimal fungicidal concentration (MFCs) tests. The MICs and MBCs/MFCs were obtained from the aqueous extract (MIC 0.37 mg/mL and MBCs 1.5 mg/mL against <em>S. mutans</em> and MIC 0.37 mg/mL and MFCs 3.0 mg/mL against <em>C. albicans</em>) and ethanolic extract (MIC 0.75 mg/mL and MBCs 1.5 mg/mL against <em>S. mutans</em> and MIC 3.0 mg/mL and MFCs 12.0 mg/mL against <em>C. albicans</em>). The growth of <em>S. mutans</em> and <em>C. albicans</em> were effectively inhibited by extracts of <em>C. colocynthis</em>. The LC50 values of <em>C. colocynthis</em> on HGF1-PI cells were 4589.19 μg/mL and 3933.84 μg/mL by aqueous and ethanolic extracts, respectively. The LC50 values of <em>C. colocynthis</em> on MCF-7 cells were 4589.19 μg/mL and 3933.84 μg/mL by aqueous and ethanolic extracts, respectively. The extracts of <em>C. colocynthis</em> significantly decreased the growth of breast cancer and normal gingival fibroblast cells. The results of the study showed that the extracts may be used to treat oral mucosal diseases and prevent dental caries but future research is needed.</p> 2019-06-21T15:52:43+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Expression of p53 and p21 in bladder carcinoma of Iraqi patients 2019-07-21T17:42:15+02:00 Rawaa Al Chalabi Shahlaa M. Salih Sajid Saad Hayder Jawad <p>Bladder cancer is an abnormal cellular multiplication without control arising from the urinary bladder urothelium. Cells cycle is a strictly controlled process regulated by protein complexes composed of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases and also by several tumor suppressor gene protein products acting at the Go/G1 checkpoint of the cell-cycle. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of p53 and p21 expression as biomarkers to monitor the disease and compare the results with those of others. Seventy-three tumors with different stages and grades were collected from patients with bladder carcinoma and ten normal bladder biopsies from forensic autopsy. Sections were immunohistochemically stained for p53 and p21. Results revealed that p53 positive immune reactivity was observed in (57.5%) which were exclusively nuclear and no immune reactivity detectable in (42.5%) of tumors, while all normal tissues expressed negative patterns. Positive immune staining of p21 was recorded in (69.5%) and negative p21 immune staining was recorded in 22 (31.1%), as well as ten normal urothelium. Statistically p53 and p21 over-expression was significantly related to stage and grade of tumors (P&lt;0.05).</p> 2019-06-24T17:40:47+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bacillus mojavensis: biofilm formation and biochemical investigation of its bioactive metabolites 2019-07-21T17:42:14+02:00 Ippolito Camele Hazem S. Elshafie Lucia Caputo Shimaa H. Sakr Vincenzo De Feo <p><em>Bacillus mojavensis</em> is an endophytic bacterium which has been reported to have fungicidal effect against some phytopathogens. Bioactive secondary metabolites produced by <em>B. mojavensis</em> could have promising applications in agricultural, food industry and clinical fields. The current research has been conducted to: i) evaluate the antagonistic effect of <em>B. mojavensis</em> isolate against some phytopathogens; ii) characterize chemically the principal bioactive substances produced by the studied isolate of <em>B. mojavensis</em> using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS); iii) evaluate its ability to produce a biofilm using ELISA technique. Results showed that the studied isolate has an antagonistic activity against the majority of tested microorganisms. Results showed also that the studied isolated produced a biofilm in Supplemented Luria-Bertani Casamino acid (SLB) and Minimal Mineral (MM) medium. The substantial attached growth in SLB was significantly higher than MM media. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 9 compounds accounting 87.8% of the total extract, where oxygenated monoterpenes are the main constituents.</p> 2019-06-25T15:28:30+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## 'Drink and sleep like a fish': goldfish as a behavior model to study pharmaceutical effects in freshwater ecosystems 2019-07-21T17:42:24+02:00 Valbona Aliko Enis Mehmeti Mihallaq Qirjo Caterina Faggio <p>Behavior is a mechanism through which organisms react to internal and external stimuli to best cope with challenges in an ever-changing environment. The study of animal behavior patterns in response to environmental stress/threats, is a relatively new and unexplored topic. The aim of this study is to offer a modest contribution in explaining the effects of pharmaceutical pollutants found in freshwater ecosystems, using the behavior patterns and physiology of <em>Carassius auratus</em>. Behavior changes were evaluated through swimming patterns, opercula and pectoral response, and rheological aggressivity. Animals were exposed for 5 weeks to water (as control), ethanol (EtOH, 0.25 and 1%, v/v), fluoxetine (FLX, 100 μg/L) and caffeine (CAF, 50 mg/L) and their short-term responses were recorded. The video has been analyzed using the open-sourced software program Track3D and EthoVision XT, which objectively quantified swimming and social behaviors. In all treatments, fish showed significantly (P&lt;0.01) high level of stress, aggressivity and hyperactivity, compared to control. An interesting fact was that for each pollutant, fish exhibited different swimming patterns, from the normal one. These changes in the nervous system such as stressed behavior, irregular swimming patterns, hyperactivity and aggression, are consequences of pharmaceutical pollution in freshwater bodies and as such they can be used as suitable early physiological response biomarkers to environmental stress. Monitoring of altered behavior is a great early indicator of water pollution, which can easily be applied in the best aquaculture and fishery practices.</p> 2019-01-11T16:49:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cultural selection and human food preferences 2019-07-21T17:42:12+02:00 Ani Bajrami <p>Genes and culture co-evolve to determine variations in dietary habits. Our evolutionary heritage regarding food choice and food preferences is responsible for the mismatch with the food environments we have created, which leads to problems such as overweight and obesity. Several hypotheses have attempted to explain the high rate of obesity present in today’s world. The <em>thrifty genotype</em> hypothesis suggested that obesity today is a throwback to our ancestors having undergone positive selection for genes that favored energy storage. The <em>drifty genotype</em> hypothesis contends that the prevalence of thrifty genes is not a result of positive selection for energy-storage genes but, rather, is attributable to genetic drift resulting from the removal of predatory selection pressures. Both hypotheses focus on environmental changes over time, positive selection and genetic drift. While genetics plays a significant role, we believe that cultural selection is also responsible for the spread of obesogenic phenomena in Albania. The high rates of overweight and obesity among Albanians today can be explained as a mismatch between our evolutionary past and maladaptive behaviors.</p> 2019-06-27T14:05:19+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In memory of Professor Giovanni Pizzuti 2019-07-21T17:42:13+02:00 Emma Rabino Massa <p>Not available.</p> 2019-06-26T12:48:43+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##