GC-MS analysis and antibacterial activity of the Sea cucumber (Muelleria lecanora) extract

Abstract

Sea cucumbers are marine invertebrates commonly found in benthic areas and deep seas. On a global scale, they have a high commercial value with an increased level of production and trade. This study aims to analyze the bioactive compound in Sea cucumber (Muelleria lecanora) using the Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Method (UAE) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Furthermore, it identifies the antibacterial activity in microorganisms Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. The bioactive compounds were extracted using methanol, acetone, and n-hexane solvent and were separated by ultrasound-assisted extraction. In the initial stage, phytochemicals were screened using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Disc diffusion method was then used to determine the antibacterial activity against Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The results showed that methanol extract is more suitable for extracting bioactive compounds of Muelleria lecanora than acetone and n-hexane. Meanwhile, acetone solvents are more suitable for the production of flavonoid and steroid compounds than Mulleria lecanora samples. Heneicosane compounds that function as a new antiproliferative for inhibition of tumor and cancerous cells are produced from n-hexane. The antibacterial activity of acetone, methanol and n-hexane extract determined by diffusion assay was effective against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella but ineffective against Escherichia coli. GC-MS results showed that the major constituents obtained were steroid and flavanoid. From this study, Sea cucumber extract can be considered a healthy nutrient in food and pharmaceutical products.

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Author Biographies

Muhammad Yusuf, Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang

Muhammad Yusuf currently works at the Chemical Engineering Department, Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang. Their project research in Food Processing, Nutraceuticals, Phytochemicals, Food Microbiology and Functional Foods.

Nur Fitriani Usdyana Attahmid, Politeknik Pertanian Negeri Pangkep

Nur Fitriani Usdyana Attahmid currently works at the Agroindustry Department, Politeknik Pertanian Negeri Pangkep, Indonesia. Their project research in Food Processing, Nutraceuticals, Phytochemicals, Food Microbiology and Functional Foods.

Published
2021-08-25
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Original Articles
Keywords:
Antibacterial, Muelleria lecanora, phytochemicals, sea cucumber, ultrasoundassisted extraction
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How to Cite
Yusuf, M., & Usdyana Attahmid, N. F. (2021). GC-MS analysis and antibacterial activity of the Sea cucumber (<em>Muelleria lecanora</em&gt;) extract. Journal of Biological Research - Bollettino Della Società Italiana Di Biologia Sperimentale. https://doi.org/10.4081/jbr.2021.9765