The human kidney as a regulator of body cytokine homeostasis
AbstractEvidence is accumulating that the human kidney is a major site for the removal of several cytokines and growth factors, which can accumulate in body pools in patients with acute and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In addition, progressive renal failure and the increase in circulating proinflammatory cytokines are associated with mortality, suggesting that altered cytokines handling by the kidney is associated with worse outcome. Also, the kidney itself may be damaged by signals arising by endothelia and peripheral tissues during the course of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and obesity. In this paper we provide a review of kidney handling of several adipokines and myokines, with special emphasis to interleukin-6 (IL-6), leptin, resistin and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta).
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Copyright (c) 2011 A. Bonanni, A. Sofia, S. Saffioti, I. Mannucci, D. Verzola, P. Gramegna, L. Cappuccino, G. Garibotto
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