Italian Journal of Food Safety <p>The <strong>Italian Journal of Food Safety (IJFS)</strong> is the official journal of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Italian Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (AIVI)</a>. The Journal addresses veterinary food hygienists, specialists in the food industry and other experts offering technical support and advice on food of animal origin. The <strong>Italian Journal of Food Safety</strong> publishes original research papers concerning food safety and hygiene, animal health, zoonoses and food safety, food safety economics. Reviews, editorials, technical reports, brief notes, conference proceedings, letters to the Editor, and book reviews are also welcome. Every article published in the Journal will be peer-reviewed by experts in the field and selected by members of the Editorial Board.</p> en-US <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> (Emanuela Fusinato) (Tiziano Taccini) Mon, 30 Sep 2019 11:51:52 +0200 OJS 60 Biochemical and nutritional characteristics of buffalo meat and potential implications on human health for a personalized nutrition <p>The human consumption of food animal products is the main topic of an important debate among professionals in this sector: dietologists, dietitians and nutritional biologists. The red meat provides all the essential amino acids, bioavailable iron, zinc, calcium, lipids and B-group vitamins. A valid alternative to beef could be the buffalo meat. Italy is the largest European producer of buffalo meat and derivatives. The high nutritional characteristics of buffalo meat make it suitable to be included in the Mediterranean diet to customize it in relation to the needs and conditions of the population. Polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio can be influenced by diet, breed and type of breeding, but muscle tissue fat percentage is the main factor in determining a favorable fatty acid composition. This review focuses on the biochemical and nutritional characteristics of the buffalo meat (content of fats, cholesterol, amino acids, vitamins and minerals), explaining their variability depending on the different breeds, and the favorable implications on the human health. These results suggest that buffalo meat can be a healthier alternative to beef, not only for healthy people in particular physiological conditions (<em>i.e.</em> pregnancy), but also for persons at risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, thus achieving the goal of a personalized nutrition.</p> Andrea Tamburrano, Barbara Tavazzi, Cinzia Anna Maria Callà, Angela Maria Amorini, Giacomo Lazzarino, Sara Vincenti, Tiziana Zottola, Maria Concetta Campagna, Umberto Moscato, Patrizia Laurenti ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 02 Oct 2019 13:53:32 +0200 Nutritional quality, safety and sensory properties of smoked tench (Tinca tinca) pâté from Trasimeno Lake, Italy <p>The present study evaluated the safety, nutritional and sensory properties of fish pâtés made from smoked tench (<em>Tinca tinca</em>) pulp. Two formulations of tench pâté were produced, one of which included olive oil and the other contained mascarpone cheese. The prepared pâté jars were thermally treated according to the method applied in the canning industry. The inactivation of <em>Clostridium botulinum</em> during thermal treatment was determined through a challenge test study, demonstrating the complete depletion of targeted bacteria. Tench pâtés showed high nutritional properties, especially the formulation with olive oil, which was characterised by lower contents of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids and a high level of monounsaturated fatty acids. The two experimental formulations possessed a specific sensory profile, due to the ingredients incorporated into the products. Consumers’ evaluation established differences in the acceptance of the two products: the formulation with added olive oil was more appreciated by consumers, who displayed a higher purchase intent for this product. The study suggests that minced smoked tench is not only a promising ingredient for pâté production but that it also represents a value-added product able to contribute to freshwater food consumption.</p> Raffaella Branciari, Rossana Roila, Andrea Valiani, David Ranucci, Roberta Ortenzi, Dino Miraglia, Lucia Bailetti, Raffaella Franceschini ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Sep 2019 11:51:16 +0200 Contamination level and exposure assessment to Aflatoxin M1 in Jordanian infant milk formulas <p>Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a principal hydroxylated-aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) metabolite, and has been classified as possible human carcinogen (group 2B). The aim of this study was to survey the contamination level, estimated daily intake (EDI) and tolerable daily intake % (TDI%) of AFM1 in Jordanian infant milk formulas. A total of 120 samples, 48 starter and 72 follow-on formula samples were collected and analyzed using ELISA technique. Of the 120 surveyed samples, 58 (48.33%) were AFM1-positive and exceeded the EU maximum limit for AFM1 in IMF (25 ng/kg). The average AFM1 concentration was 69.93 and 84.78 ng AFM1/kg, with range of &lt;5 − 89.25 and &lt;5 – 213.84 ng AFM1/kg in starter and follow-on formula, respectively. It is also noteworthy the high EDI of AFM1 by infants (1.557 and 1.551 ng AFM1/kg b.w./day), and the high TDI% values (786.9 and 775.9%). In addition, current study indicated high-extrapolated AFB1 content in the feed; accordingly, raised the need to implement good agricultural and hygienic practices as preventive and controlling measures to decrease AFM1 in milk and IMF through controlling AFB1 in feed at the farm level. Finally, it is obvious that the contamination of IMF by AFM1 is an international problem, and the protection of infants and young children against AFM1 in Jordan requires a fundamental setup of clear legal limits of AFM1 in Jordanian standards and strict monitoring and continual analysis of IMF traded and consumed in Jordan.</p> Saddam S. Awaisheh, Razan J. Rahahleh, Rania M. Algroom, Ala'a A. Al-Bakheit, Ja'far M. Al-Khaza'leh, Basim A. Al-Dababseh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Sep 2019 11:56:24 +0200 β-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase activity differentiates unfrozen from frozen-thawed Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) <p>Changes in the β-hydroxyacyl-CoAdehydrogenase (HADH) activity of fresh and frozen-thawed Yellowfin tuna were examined. A statistical approach to HADH activities determined in press juice allowed to set a critical value to differentiate fresh from frozen-thawed Yellowfin tuna: the threshold value was 3.7 U mL-1 at the probability level of 1%. The analysis of 37 tuna (not ready to eat) sampled on retail revealed the unconformity to labelling of 4 samples. A simple statistical algorithm was built to get probabilities from observed values on tuna of being or not frozen/thawed.</p> Cristian Bernardi, Erica Tirloni, Simone Stella, Aniello Anastasio, Patrizia Cattaneo, Fabio Colombo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 01 Oct 2019 13:18:45 +0200 Pre-packaged food products Business to Consumer (B2C) distance selling and information obligations in Italian mass market retailers <p>The supply and sale of food online are on the rise. The value of e-commerce in Europe has been estimated in 602 billion euros in 2017, 324 million people in the old continent purchase online. In the European area, the Netherlands and Italy are the countries where the e-commerce market grew faster in the last five years. Nevertheless, in Italy the spread of online shopping has reached the 89.9% of the population between 11 and 74 years old. The access to the Internet, as declared by 43 million Italians, it is carried out from fixed or mobile locations. In terms of revenues the food sector recorded a +24% among the different sectors facing one of the higher grows in terms of percentages. The regulatory framework that disciplines the food products distance selling can be traced back to two fundamental pillars: the European legislation on e-commerce on the one side and the food information to consumers on the other side. Under article 14 of the Regulation (EU) No. 1169/2011, the European legislator states that the mandatory information, as indicated in article 9, shall be available to the consumer before the purchase is concluded and when the product is delivered. The study aims at verifying: the level of compliance by Italians MMR with the information regulation about food products distance selling in relation to (a) the fulfillment of the obligation concerning mandatory provisions and (b) the fulfillment of the obligations concerning availability and readability of the information provided. The research has been conducted analyzing the websites of the ten largest Italian MMR and in particular: if the mandatory information were provided, the availability of the information according to the Regulation (EU) 1169/2011; the number of clicks needed to identify the food product in the website and the number of clicks required to obtain all the information. The observation testified a substantial compliance with the information obligations according to the European regulation. Differently, when considering the availability and readability of the information, from the analysis emerged that consumers have to follow a path that is not immediate and intuitive. Conclusions are provided in relation to the presented research.</p> Gaetano Liuzzo, Silvia Rolandi, Andrea Serraino, Silvia Piva, Federica Giacometti ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 01 Oct 2019 13:52:22 +0200 Assessment of sampling methods about level of mercury in fish <p>Mercury (Hg) seriously affects some sensitive subgroups of population and the detection of Hg content in fish and fishery products is one of the most important activities aimed at controlling their safety. In fact, Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 set maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs and Regulation (EC) No 333/2007 laid down the methods of sampling and analysis for their control in foodstuffs. As Hg content highly varies among different fish species depending on a variety of factors and even among members of the same population, sampling methods play a crucial role in the accuracy, precision and statistical significance of Hg determination. By the use of an analysis method independent probabilistic model, based on the axioms of Kolmogorov’s probability theory, this paper aims to assess the relationship between sampling methods set by Regulation (EC) No 333/2007 and the probability to detect compliant or non-compliant outcomes of Hg in fish.</p> Cesare Ciccarelli, Melina Leinoudi, Angela Marisa Semeraro, Vittoria Di Trani, Giuseppe Angelozzi, Elena Ciccarelli, Ivan Corti ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 01 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Microbiological, rheological and physical-chemical characteristics of bovine meat subjected to a prolonged ageing period <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a long ageing period on the microbiological, rheological and physicalchemical characteristics of bovine beef. For the trial n. 3 Marchigiana bovine breed (live weight of 760 kg approximately), slaughtered at 34 months were chosen and the loin muscles were undergone to a prolonged ageing process. The analytical determinations performed were: pH and aw values, texture profile analysis, Warner-Bratzler shear force, colour (CIE L*a*b*), centesimal analysis, total bacterial count, <em>Enterobacteriaceae, Listeria monocytogenes,</em> yeasts and moulds. The results indicate that extended ageing has a negative effect on weight loss but, by the means of the standardization of dry aging parameters, reduce lipid oxidation and improve tenderness.</p> Giorgio Smaldone, Raffaele Marrone, Lucia Vollano, Maria Francesca Peruzy, Carmela Maria Assunta Barone, Rosa Luisa Ambrosio, Aniello Anastasio ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 01 Oct 2019 14:32:00 +0200 Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli isolated from cheese and biocontrol of Shiga toxigenic E. coli with essential oils <p>The current research was carried out to study the incidence of<em> Escherichia coli</em> (<em>E. coli</em>) in Egyptian cheese (Kariesh and Ras) and molecular characterization of certain <em>E. coli</em> virulence genes (s<em>tx1, stx2, eaeA, hlyA</em> and <em>fimH)</em> using multiplex PCR technique. Biocontrol of<em> E. coli</em> with essential oils (clove and thyme oil) was also studied. A total of 150 random samples of Kariesh and Ras cheese (75 each) were collected from various areas in Governorate of Menoufia. According to our results, the frequency of E. coli isolated from Kariesh and Ras cheese was 16% and 5.3%, respectively. Serological identification classified the <em>E. coli</em> strains into two groups, enterohemorrhag<em>ic E. coli</em> (EHEC) serogroup (O26: H11, O91: H21, O111: H2 and O103: H2). While the enterotoxigenic<em> E. coli</em> (ETEC) serogroup were detected as O125: H21 which is the most prevalent strain. O171: H2, O86 and O119: H6 belonging to enteropathogenic <em>E. coli</em> (EPEC). The most prevalent gene detected in <em>E. coli</em> strains was <em>stx1</em> (87.5%) followed by <em>stx2</em> (86%), <em>fimH</em> (75%), <em>hlyA</em> (50%) and <em>eaeA</em> (25%) genes. Concerning the antimicrobial activity with essential oils, thyme oil (1%) is considered as the bactericidal effect against<em> E. coli</em> (ATCC35150) with improved the sensory evaluation than clove oil (1%). In conclusion, Kariesh and Ras cheese are extremely tainted with pathogenic<em> E. coli</em> strains, which represent a strong hazard on the human health.</p> Heba Hussien, Ayman Elbehiry, Marwa Saad, Ghada Hadad, Ihab Moussa, Turki Dawoud, Ayman Mubarak, Eman Marzouk ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 01 Oct 2019 14:59:52 +0200 Microbial, chemical-physical, rheological and organoleptic characterisation of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) salami <p>Game meat and related products are important in the promotion of local economies and rural areas. Microbiological, chemical–physical, rheological and sensory characteristics of fermented meat products (salami) made by different percentages of pork and hunted roe-deer (<em>Capreolus capreolus</em>) meat were evaluated. The microbiological determination indicated that the products are safe to eat, as neither <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em> nor <em>Salmonella</em> spp. was isolated from the samples. The hygienic adequacy of the process was guaranteed, as there was below 3 log CFU/g of <em>Enterobacteriaceae</em> level in the final products. The proximal composition analyses showed lower lipid levels in comparison to pork salami. The difference in chemical composition affects the rheological and sensory traits of the final products; the products were harder and with higher gumminess when 50% of roe-deer meat was used. Game meat flavour and odour increased with the increasing percentage of roe-deer meat.</p> David Ranucci, Rossana Roila, Dino Miraglia, Chiara Arcangeli, Francesca Vercillo, Sara Bellucci, Raffaella Branciari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 02 Oct 2019 13:44:47 +0200 Non-thermal inactivation of Listeria spp. in a typical dry-fermented sausage: “Bergamasco” salami <p>Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the growth potential of <em>Listeria</em> spp. inoculated in the typical North Italian dry fermented sausage “Bergamasco” salami during its production. As it was necessary to carry out the challenge test in the production line of the industry, according to the guidelines of the European Reference Laboratory for <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em>, a non-pathogenic “surrogate” microorganism was used: for the inoculum, two strains of <em>Listeria innocua</em> (1 ATCC, 1 strain isolated from a similar substrate) were used. The inoculation of the samples occurred during grinding and mixing of the sausage mass, before the filling. To avoid cross-contamination, the control samples were produced before the contaminated ones. After the dripping, salamis were subjected to the normal production process (drying and maturation in five steps at specific temperatures and humidity rates). The inoculated products were subjected to the enumeration of <em>Listeria</em> spp. at T0 (day of inoculation) and at T4 (post-drying), and every 10 days during curing (T10, T20, T30, T40, T50, T60, T70, T80 and T90), as this salami is generally sold as whole piece with varying levels of curing (from T20 to T90). Since the product may be cut in half and vacuumpacked, at each of the times starting from T20, half salami was vacuum-packed and stored for 30 days at 12°C, at the end of the which <em>Listeria</em> spp. enumeration was performed again. At all times and for each type of samples of each of the three batches, the enumeration of the natural microflora (Total Viable Count, lactic acid bacteria, <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp., <em>Enterobacteriaceae</em>) and the determination of water activity and pH were performed on control samples. The product was characterized by a high concentration of microflora (8-8.5 Log UFC/g), consisting mainly of lactic acid bacteria, added to the mixture at the beginning of the production process. The pH showed a decrease over time, expected for this type of products, due to the development of lactic acid bacteria (final pH: 5.42-5.55). The water activity reached values able to inhibit the development of <em>Listeria</em> spp. (final aw: 0.826-0.863). <em>Listeria</em> counts in the tested batches of “Bergamasco” salami showed the absence of significant growth in the product with a reduction of loads if compared to T0, between -0.59 and -1.04 Log CFU/g. Even in the samples subjected to vacuum packaging and storage at 12°C, the absence of significant increase of lactic acid bacteria in the product was highlighted with further decrease of bacterial loads (-0.70/-0.79 Log CFU/g if compared to T20). Considering the worst case scenario (thus the batch with the highest growth potential), in the products stored in the curing room at 14-16°C, at humidity of 80% and in the samples stored at 12°C and vacuum packaged, the threshold indicated by the EURL Lm guidelines (+0.5 Log CFU/g) for the growth of <em>Listeria</em> spp. was not reached, allowing to classify “Bergamasco” salami in the category 1.3 of the EC Reg. 2073/2005 as “Ready-to-eat food unable to support the growth of <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em>”.</p> Erica Tirloni, Vanessa Di Pietro, Giuseppe Rizzi, Francesco Pomilio, Patrizia Cattaneo, Cristian Bernardi, Simone Stella ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 02 Oct 2019 13:49:33 +0200