Italian Journal of Food Safety https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ijfs <p>The <strong>Italian Journal of Food Safety (IJFS)</strong> is the official journal of the <a href="http://www.aivi.it/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Italian Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (AIVI)</a>. The Journal addresses veterinary food hygienists, specialists in the food industry and other experts offering technical support and advice on food of animal origin. The <strong>Italian Journal of Food Safety</strong> publishes original research papers concerning food safety and hygiene, animal health, zoonoses and food safety, food safety economics. Reviews, editorials, technical reports, brief notes, conference proceedings, letters to the Editor, and book reviews are also welcome. Every article published in the Journal will be peer-reviewed by experts in the field and selected by members of the Editorial Board.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Italian Journal of Food Safety 2239-7132 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Carbapenemase-producing bacteria in food-producing animals, wildlife and environment: A challenge for human health https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ijfs/article/view/7956 <p>Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing global health problem and one of the major concerns for economic impacts worldwide. Recently, resistance against carbapenems (doripenem, ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem), which are critically important antimicrobials for human cares, poses a great risk all over the world. Carbapenemases are β-lactamases belonging to different Ambler classes (A, B, D) and encoded by both chromosomal and plasmidic genes. They hydrolyze a broad variety of β-lactams, including carbapenems, cephalosporins, penicillins and aztreonam. Despite several studies in human patients and hospital settings have been performed in European countries, the role of livestock animals, wild animals and the terrestrial and aquatic environment in the maintenance and transmission of carbapenemase- producing bacteria has been poorly investigated. The present review focuses on the carbapenemase-producing bacteria detected in pigs, cattle, poultry, fish, mollusks, wild birds and wild mammals in Europe as well as in non-European countries, investigating the genetic mechanisms for their transmission among food-producing animals and wildlife. To shed light on the important role of the environment in the maintenance and genetic exchange of resistance determinants between environmental and pathogenic bacteria, studies on aquatic sources (rivers, lakes, as well as wastewater treatment plants) are described.</p> Silvia Bonardi Rosario Pitino ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-20 2019-06-20 8 2 10.4081/ijfs.2019.7956 Epidemiological survey on the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in the Sardinian pig production chain, using real-time PCR screening method https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ijfs/article/view/7843 <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of <em>Salmonella</em> spp. in the Sardinian pig production chain in order to establish the incidence of monophasic serovariant of <em>Salmonella</em> Typhimurium on isolates with molecular methods (real-time PCR and multiplex PCR). Samples were collected in three EC slaughterhouses, four small slaughterhouses annexed to farmhouses, one meat distribution center, four meat cutting laboratories and four sausage processing plants. A total of 166 samples were collected and analyzed: 46 environmental samples, 48 finishing pigs, 16 piglets, 24 samples of non-processed meat, 28 meat preparations and 4 meat products. All samples were processed with an initial screening using the real-time PCR <em>MicroSEQ® Salmonella spp detection Kit</em> (Applied biosystems, life technologies) and with the TaqMan® Real-time PCR to confirm the kit results. Samples that tested positive for <em>Salmonella</em> spp were confirmed with cultural method using the standard ISO 6579. Positive samples were submitted to phenotypic identification. One colony from each positive sample was serotyped with multiplex PCR method. <em>Salmonella</em> spp was isolated in 7 on 166 samples (4.22 %). Among the positive samples, two came from finishing pigs, two belonged to the category meat preparations, two to meat products, one was an environmental sample. Multiplex PCR confirmed that the collected strains belonged to the species <em>Salmonella</em> Typhimurium (1), <em>Salmonella</em> derby (3) and monophasic serovariant of <em>Salmonella</em> Typhimurium (3).</p> Carlo Pala Tiziana Tedde Sara Salza Maria Teresa Uda Stefano Lollai Vittoria Carboni Antonio Fadda Edoardo Marongiu Sebastiano Virgilio ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-25 2019-06-25 8 2 10.4081/ijfs.2019.7843 Preliminary monitoring of the presence of perfluoroalkyl substances in Italian eggs from different breeding systems https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ijfs/article/view/7702 <p>Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) are a wide cluster of fluorinated molecules largely engaged industrially and commercially for many purposes. Because of the strength of the fluorine-carbon bond, PFASs show a firm tenacity against thermal degradation, hydrolysis, photolysis and biodegradation. On the other hand, such chemical stability gives them persistent environmental pollutant feature. In 2012, EFSA published a scientific report on PFASs in food, mentioning their adverse effects on health. Based on observational studies evidences, EFSA has recommended a tolerable daily intake (TDI) for the two most known PFASs, i.e. PFOS 150 ng/kg b.w./day and PFOA 1500 ng/kg b.w./day. The aim of this study was to monitor, for the first time, the level of contamination of PFASs in chicken eggs laid in Northern Italy. The eggs were collected from different rearing systems, in order to search a correlation between this variable and the contamination of PFASs. In this study four PFASs [perfluoro-nnonanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoro-noctanoic- acid (PFOA), sodium perfluoro-1- hexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and sodium perfluoro- 1-octanesulfonate (PFOS)] were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). 132 eggs were analyzed, split up in 11 groups according to the geographical origin and rearing system. Results accord with literature data available for chicken eggs: almost all the samples show a PFASs contamination level under the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.25 ng/mL. No significant difference results from the rearing system, attesting an equal distribution and a concentration of PFASs detectable under the limit of quantification.</p> Elisa Ghelli Maria Teresa Tondo Elisa Zironi Giampiero Pagliuca Federico Sirri Teresa Gazzotti ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-25 2019-06-25 8 2 10.4081/ijfs.2019.7702 Preliminary investigation on the microbiological quality of edible marine gastropods of the Adriatic Sea, Italy https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ijfs/article/view/7691 <p>According to the European Legislation, marine gastropods placed unprocessed on the market must comply with the same requirements established for live bivalve molluscs but, being considered not filterfeeding and unable to concentrate fecal contaminants, they may be harvested outside the classified areas. Despite this statement, little scientific information is available on the microbiological quality of these animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate 28 batches of edible snails of the Adriatic Sea, namely <em>Nassarius mutabilis</em> and <em>Bolinus brandaris</em>, with respect to i) smell and viability, by a method here reported; ii) the bacterial component of the whole body referred to <em>E. coli, Vibrio</em> spp., <em>V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. cholerae</em> and <em>V. alginolyticus</em>. A total of 21 batches of <em>N. mutabilis</em> and 7 batches of <em>B. brandari</em>s were analyzed. Batches of both species retrieved from the primary production were all largely composed of viable animals, had saltwater/neutral smell, and showed mean value of <em>Vibrio</em> spp. of 5,34 and 5,79 log<sub>10</sub> UFC g<sup>-1</sup> in <em>N. mutabilis</em> and <em>B. brandaris</em> respectively. 47% of the batches of <em>N. mutabilis</em> retrieved from the market, were largely composed of dead animals, had acrid/nasty smell, and showed mean value of <em>Vibrio</em> spp. of 6,53 log<sub>10</sub> UFC g<sup>-1</sup>. <em>E. coli, V. vulnificus</em> and <em>V. cholerae</em> were never detected, but all samples were positive for <em>V. alginolyticus</em>. One sample of <em>B. brandaris</em> was positive for <em>V. parahaemolyticus</em> genotyped by PCR at the specie level (<em>Tox</em>R+) and positive for the thermostable direct hemolysin gene (<em>tdh</em>+).</p> Patrizia Serratore Emanuele Zavatta Giorgia Bignami Luna Lorito ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-20 2019-06-20 8 2 10.4081/ijfs.2019.7691 Microbiological and physicochemical properties of smoked ricotta cheese during refrigeration and temperature abuse storage https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ijfs/article/view/8009 <p>In the last years changes occurred in the production process of <em>ricotta mustia</em>, a traditional smoked, salted and sometimes ripened ricotta cheese, produced in Sardinia. Fresher, slightly smoked and with reduced salt content products, were introduced into the market to meet changes in consumer’s preferences for milder products. The present study of durability was conducted on an innovative fresh and smoked industrial product, also characterized by the small size and the packaging in modified atmosphere. A durability test to assess the evolution of microbiological and physicochemical profile of the product stored at refrigeration (4°C) and mild abuse (7°C) temperatures was carried out. A total of 126 ricotta samples smoked for either 1, 2, or 3 h were analyzed at intervals during shelflife for the determination of aerobic mesophilic counts, <em>Enterobacteriaceae</em>, yeast, moulds, <em>L. monocytogenes, Pseudomonas</em> spp. and <em>B. cereus</em>. Intrinsic properties, physic-chemical and headspace gas composition were also analyzed. Average and standard deviation were respectively 6,06±0,22 for pH, 0,982±0,05 for a<sub>W</sub>, 74,67%±1,81% for moisture, 10,25%±1,35% for fat, 10,92%±0,46% for protein and 1,70%±0,42% for salt content. Total bacterial count ranged between 3.88±0.48 log cfu/g at T<sub>0</sub> and 3.25±1.02 at T<sub>45</sub>. <em>L. monocytogenes, Pseudomonas</em> spp. and <em>E. coli</em> were always below the detection limit. <em>Enterobacteriaceae</em> prevalence (percentage) was 3.17% (2.62±0.42 lg10 cfu/g) and was limited to samples stored longer than 30 days while <em>B. cereus</em> was recovered in 5.55% (2.36±0.35 lg10 cfu/g) of the samples and was never observed in samples after 45 days of refrigerated storage. The durability study is preliminary to challenge test to assess the shelf-life of this product in compliance with the requirements of Regulation (EC) 2073/2005.</p> Christian Scarano Carlo Spanu Anna Maria Mocci Francesca Piras Mariella Demontis Gavino Murittu Giuliano Pinna Angela Santoru Enrico Pietro Luigi De Santis ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-20 2019-06-20 8 2 10.4081/ijfs.2019.8009 Effect of dietary inclusion of different lipid supplements on performance and carcass quality traits of growing beef heifers https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ijfs/article/view/7683 <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of dietary extruded flaxseed and/or rumen-protected lipids on growth performance and carcass quality of growing beef heifers. Sixty-three crossbreed heifers (Charolais X Limousine) were distributed into seven experimental groups, balanced in terms of age and live weight. Diets fed to the groups were isoproteic and differed in both, the dietary lipid source (extruded linseed and/or rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid) and the supplementation length (90 or 180 days before slaughtering), having the same total amount of lipids and vitamin E, during their finishing period. The results obtained in the present study confirm that in low-protein diets, the inclusion of rumen-protected CLA, alone or in combination with flaxseed, did not bring any evident effect on feed intake, performance and carcass quality traits of growing beef heifers.</p> Attilio Luigi Mordenti Nico Brogna Flavia Merendi Luca Sardi Marco Tassinari Ludovica Maria Eugenia Mammi Elisa Giaretta Andrea Formigoni ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 8 2 10.4081/ijfs.2019.7683 Evaluation of freezing point in milk from buffalos reared in Calabria, Italy https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ijfs/article/view/7895 <p>Evaluation of freezing point is one of the most common technique used to detect milk adulteration such as addition of external water to increase volume. The aim of this study was to evaluate the freezing point of buffalo milk using infrared spectroscopy and to assess how it is influenced by other milk components. A total of 361 individual buffalo milk samples were collected monthly from March to August of 2017 in a dairy farm in Catanzaro district, Italy. Samples were tested for freezing point, urea, acetone and beta-hydroxybutyrate, percent of fat, protein, lactose, casein, by Fourier Transformed Spectroscopy. The pH and daily milk production were also recorded. Freezing point ranged from -0.574°C to - 0.512°C and the mean values was -0.545°C ±0.010. According to lactation stage, freezing point decreased until 210 days post-partum reaching the minimum value of −0.550°C, then it slightly increased during lactation; according to sampling month the highest and lowest values were recorded in August and June, respectively. A positive correlation between freezing point and lactose content were evidenced (r=0.1806, P&lt;0.05). Moreover, a faintly positive correlation was also found between freezing point and beta-idroxibutirrate (r=0.0869, P&lt;0.05) and acetone (r=0.0096, P&lt;0.05), whereas a negative correlation with fat (r=−0.2356, P&lt;0.05), protein (r=-0.1855, P&lt;0.05), casein (r=-0.2127, P&lt;0.05) and urea (r=-0.1229, P&lt;0.05) was evidenced.</p> Carlotta Ceniti Domenico Britti Francesca Trimboli Valeria Maria Morittu Vincenzo Lopreiato Nicola Costanzo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 8 2 10.4081/ijfs.2019.7895 Edible earthworms in a food safety perspective: Preliminary data https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ijfs/article/view/7695 <p>The world population and global food demand are increasing, particularly the demand for animal protein sources. At the same time, society produces large quantities of food waste. Sustainable solutions, to ensure enough food and to optimize the use of resources, are necessary. Earthworms grown on fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) can be a future alternative food source, contributing to waste disposal efficiency. They improve food sustainability under nutritional and environmental dimensions. These topics are included in the philosophy of the circular economy. Earthworms, characterized by a high percentage of proteins and minerals, are used as foods in some world countries, including China and the Philippines. In order to consider safety aspects of earthworms grown on FVW as food sources, this study evaluated the microbiological quality of FVW (i) used as growth substrate; fresh earthworms (ii) and earthworms’ meal (iii) resulting from two technological processes (freeze-drying and drying). The efficiency of these technologies in reducing microbial contamination was evaluated. Microbiological analyses revealed the absence of <em>Salmonella</em> spp. and <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em> in FVW, in fresh earthworms and in earthworms’ meal. Fresh earthworms’ results fell within the limits of acceptability, if related to the limit for minced meat (Interdepartmental Center for Research and Documentation on Food Safety). Both freeze-drying and drying step led to a further reduction of microbial contamination, confirming the importance of the processing methods. In conclusion, earthworms can represent an innovative biotechnological response to re-use FVW, a valuable food supplement of animal proteins and a strategy to improve food sustainability.</p> Cecilia Conti Marta Castrica Claudia M. Balzaretti Doriana E.A. Tedesco ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 8 2 10.4081/ijfs.2019.7695 Decontamination of knives used in a slaughterhouse by a commercial non-thermal UV-C treatment https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ijfs/article/view/8107 <p>To assess the antimicrobial effect of a commercial UV-C system, knives inoculated with <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> as well as naturally contaminated and collected from the wet and clean area of a slaughterhouse knives were examined. For inoculated knives, UVC treatment for 30 s reduced mean<em> E. col</em>i counts by 5.1 log CFU cm-2 and mean <em>S. aureus</em> counts by 4.5 log CFU cm-2. The presence of blood lowered mean reductions to 3.4 log CFU cm-2 for<em> E. coli</em> and to 2.5 log CFU cm-2 for<em> S. aureus.</em> The presence of fat had a greater negative impact on the efficacy of the UV-C treatment resulting in mean reductions &lt;1.8 log CFU cm-2. For naturally contaminated knives from a slaughterhouse, total viable counts (TVC) before UV-C treatment varied considerably (wet area: 2.0-6.0 log CFU cm-2, clean area: 1.0–3.0 log CFU cm-2). UV-C treatment for 30s reduced mean TVC by 0.8 log CFU cm-2 (wet area) and 0.6 log CFU cm-2 (clean area), but the effect varied greatly between individual knives. Thus, under commercial conditions, the antibacterial effect of UV-C for the decontamination of knives is affected by the presence of additional contaminations like blood or fat. The adequate cleaning of the knives prior to UV-C decontamination is therefore of central importance.</p> Susanne Raschle Claudio Zweifel Katrin Zurfluh Roger Stephan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 8 2 10.4081/ijfs.2019.8107 Identification of virulence and antibiotic resistance factors in Arcobacter butzleri isolated from bovine milk by Whole Genome Sequencing https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ijfs/article/view/7840 <p><em>Arcobacter butzleri</em> is a pathogenic aerobic bacterium responsible for diarrhea and septicemia in humans. It is frequently isolated from food products of animal origin, including milk and dairy products. To data, few reports are currently available on the genetic characteristics and virulence profiles of <em>A. butzleri</em>. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity and to characterize the virulence and antibiotic resistance profiles of 10 <em>A. butzleri</em> strains isolated from bovine milk samples by Whole Genome Sequence (WGS). Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) revealed that three isolates belonged to the ST66, two to the ST420 and the remaining five strains to the ST627, ST629, ST630, ST633 and ST637, respectively. The 100% of the strains carried <em>cadF, pldA, ciaB, cj1349, mviN</em> and <em>tlyA</em> virulence factors genes; 60% <em>iroE;</em> 50% <em>irgA;</em> 10% <em>hecB.</em> Resistome prediction showed a multidrug resistance: 100% of isolates resulted resistant to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline; 90% of strains to rifampicin and cephalosporins and a minor percentage to other antibiotics. Furthermore, the 50% of strains harbored four mutations in <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis katG</em> gene conferring resistance to isoniazid. The study provided interesting data on the virulence characteristics and on the genetic endowment related to the antimicrobial resistance of<em> A. butzleri</em> isolates from milk. The determination of the STs also added information concerning the genetic variability of this microorganism. To date, a very limited number of studies have been published on the typing of<em> A. butzleri</em> using WGS, so this paper proposes an innovative methodological approach that allows a rapid and complete characterization of pathogenic microorganisms.</p> Antonio Parisi Loredana Capozzi Angelica Bianco Marta Caruso Laura Latorre Antonella Costa Anna Giannico Donato Ridolfi Carmela Bulzacchelli Gianfranco Santagada ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-04 2019-06-04 8 2 10.4081/ijfs.2019.7840 Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolates from grilled chicken meat sold at retail outlets in Erbil City, Kurdistan region, Iraq https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ijfs/article/view/8233 <p>Food borne salmonellosis is a major public health problem worldwide. This study aimed to detect the occurrence and antibiotics sensitivity of <em>Salmonella</em> species in grilled chicken meat sold at retail outlets in Erbil City, Kurdistan, Iraq. Two hundred and twenty-five (225) samples were aseptically collected from central and suburb retail outlets. For isolation of salmonellae, samples were cultured on selective media and tested for their susceptibility to common antibiotics by disk diffusion assay. The results revealed that the overall prevalence of <em>Salmonella</em> among grilled chicken meat samples was 7.1%. The isolates belonged to eight different serotypes of <em>Salmonella.</em> These include <em>S</em>. Typhimurium,<em> S</em>. Tennessee, <em>S</em>. Newport, <em>S.</em> Enteritidis, <em>S.</em> Anatum, <em>S.</em> Arizona, <em>S.</em> Muenchen, and<em> S.</em> Montevideo. The antibiotic resistance profile revealed a total resistance to Levofloxacin and total sensitivity to Cefotaxime, Amoxicillin, and Cefadroxil. This resistance among Salmonella may pose a public health hazard that requires effective precautions and response.</p> Dhary A. Almashhadany ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-25 2019-06-25 8 2 10.4081/ijfs.2019.8233 Microscopic investigations as an aid in raw ham’s ripening analysis https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ijfs/article/view/8166 <p>The raw ham’s ripening process contributes to the development of numerous biochemical reactions, mainly affecting proteins and lipids and allowing to obtain an adequate texture and a characteristic flavor. This article reports the results of histologic investigations carried out on 5 different anatomic regions from raw hams manufactured in the Fermo Province, Marche Region, Central Italy. Raw ham specimens were collected at the 10 following time intervals throughout the ripening process: 1) “Time 0”, when ripening was started, 2) one month, 3) three months, 4) four months, 5) eight months, 6) nine months, 7) twelve months, 8) eighteen months, 9) twentythree months and 10) twenty-eight months after the ripening process began, respectively. Different microscopic findings of variable extension and degree were observed, with the vast majority of them being interpreted as dehydration- and proteolysisrelated modifications. In conclusion, morpho- histological investigations may represent a valuable aid in raw ham’s ripening analysis.</p> Domenico Paludi Giovanni Di Guardo Alberto Olivastri Antonio Zizzi Corrado Rubini Luca Maria Pennisi Marina Baffoni Anna Rita Festino Adriana Ianieri Alberto Vergara ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-25 2019-06-25 8 2 10.4081/ijfs.2019.8166