Italian Journal of Food Safety 2020-05-27T20:58:33+00:00 Emanuela Fusinato Open Journal Systems <p>The <strong>Italian Journal of Food Safety (IJFS)</strong> is the official journal of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Italian Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (AIVI)</a>. The Journal addresses veterinary food hygienists, specialists in the food industry and other experts offering technical support and advice on food of animal origin. The <strong>Italian Journal of Food Safety</strong> publishes original research papers concerning food safety and hygiene, animal health, zoonoses and food safety, food safety economics. Reviews, editorials, technical reports, brief notes, conference proceedings, letters to the Editor, and book reviews are also welcome. Every article published in the Journal will be peer-reviewed by experts in the field and selected by members of the Editorial Board.</p> Microbiological criteria: Principles for their establishment and application in food quality and safety 2020-05-27T20:58:17+00:00 Liliana Pérez-Lavalle Elena Carrasco Antonio Valero Diaz <p>Legislation on food safety has led towards the standardization of food productions which, together with the existing quality certifications, aim to increase the level of protection of public health. It is recognized the need for the agri-food industry to have tools to harmonize their productions and to adequately manage their quality systems in order to improve consumers’ confidence. The implementation of microbiological criteria is focused on facilitating this harmonization by enabling the discrimination of defective lots and acting as control tools at industrial level. Therefore, knowledge of the principles, components and factors influencing the efficiency of microbiological criteria may be helpful to better understand the consequences of their application. In the present study the main principles, methodologies and applications of microbiological criteria in foods are addressed for their implementation as a part of the management quality systems of agrifood industries. In addition, potential limitations and impact of microbiological criteria on food safety are discussed. Finally, an assessment of the performance of microbiological criteria at EU level in berries is described for the compliance of the socalled risk-based metrics, namely Performance Objectives and Food Safety Objectives.</p> 2020-04-06T12:41:42+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Validation study on new isothermal container for hot ready to eat food in catering establishments: Preliminary results 2020-05-27T20:58:32+00:00 Marta Castrica Katia Razzini Sara Panseri Claudia M. Balzaretti <p>The production methods, in particular the cook-serve method, applied in high production catering establishments, even if inserted in a correct spatial design, it is affected by time-temperature flows characterized by inadequate designed moments during which critical points can be observed. The aim of this study was to evaluate, at a preliminary stage, how the new technologies can support the supply chain and production processes in catering establishments. To this end, a specific passive and active heat storage system was tested: “Polibox Smart Heater®” (PX SH), which makes an isothermal expanded polypropylene container an advanced maintainer for ready to eat food. The experimental design was divided into four different experiments, during which the functionality of the isothermal containers was evaluated, and thermal-tightness tests were carried out. The results showed that the PX SH containers, containing a heat accumulator, are temperature maintainers, which guarantee thermal stability (&gt;65°C), according to the current standard (UNI EN 12571:1999). In conclusion, the production chain of catering establishments should use innovative technologies such as PX SH, in order to benefit from performance consistent with the safety, hygiene and sensory criteria.</p> 2020-04-01T06:26:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ultrasonic decontamination in smoked salmon experimentally contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes: Preliminary results 2020-05-27T20:58:30+00:00 Luca Pennisi Daniele Di Clerico Luigi Costantini Anna Rita Festino Alberto Vergara <p>The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of ultrasound (sonication) and their combination with temperature (thermosonication) on the inactivation of <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em> (LM) in smoked salmon. The trial was conducted on smoked salmon samples experimentally contaminated with a cocktail of 4 strains of <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em> (LM ATCC 19114, LM ATCC 15313, LM ATCC 19111 and LM ATCC 7644) at a final concentration of 8 log cfu/g and kept at 4°C until its use. Thermosonication treatments between 40°C and 50°C for 5, 10 and 15 minutes proved to be more effective without altering the sensory characteristics of the food.</p> 2020-04-01T06:36:23+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biogenic amines content in Fiore Sardo cheese in relation to free amino acids and physicochemical characteristics 2020-05-27T20:58:33+00:00 Gavina Manca Antonio Ru Giuliana Siddi Anna Maria Mocci Gavino Murittu Enrico Pietro Luigi De Santis <p>Fiore Sardo is a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese produced in Sardinia (Italy) from raw sheep’s milk, presenting risk factors due to an accumulation of Biogenic Amines (BA). A total of 37 Fiore Sardo cheese samples produced in 19 dairy farms were collected from local retail stores to evaluate BA content and its relationship with free amino acids (FAA) and composition. The following were determined for each sample: pH, water activity, composition (moisture, dry matter, NaCl, protein and fat content). FAA and BA, after extraction, were determined by HPLC-FL. The total BA content in Fiore Sardo PDO cheese samples was 127±87 mg 100 g-1, ranging between 6 and 366 mg 100 g-1. Tyramine showed the highest concentration (82±51 mg 100 g-1), followed by putrescine (21±26 mg 100 g-1). Moreover, cadaverine, histamine, β-phenylethylamine and tryptamine were detected at concentrations lower than 10 mg 100 g-1. Overall 54% of the samples analysed exceeded the threshold of 90 mg 100 g-1 for total BA content, posing a potential risk for consumers. BA, total FAA (2233±764 mg 100 g-1) and pH were positively correlated (P≤0.01) between themselves, whereas BA content was not correlated with aw, humidity and percentage of NaCl. The hierarchical cluster analysis results, considering 37 samples and 6 variables, detected four different groups. Samples with BA ≥200 mg 100 g-1 were distributed in two groups characterized by a higher proteolysis indicator levels (FAA, pH) but significantly different for aw, humidity and NaCl concentration. The results showed that high levels of BA were detectable in some samples of Fiore Sardo PDO cheese, suggesting that effective technological conditions at production should be adopted.</p> 2020-04-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Characterization of the temperature fluctuation effect on shelf life of an octopus semi-preserved product 2020-05-27T20:58:29+00:00 Filippo Giarratana Luca Nalbone Graziella Ziino Alessandro Giuffrida Felice Panebianco <p>The aim of this work is to study the effect of temperature fluctuations on spoilage microbial flora behaviour of a semi-preserved seafood product in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) as well as to find correct interpretation criteria for simulating temperature fluctuations during storage tests. The study concerned 54 packages of “Octopus carpaccio” that were grouped in three batches and stored at 3 different temperature profiles: the first (16 packages - Group 4°C) was stored at 4±0.5°C; the second (16 packages - Group 8°C) was stored at 8±0.5°C; the third (16 packages - Group F) was stored under a fluctuating temperature regime between 2°C and 14°C. Spoilage microflora, pH and AW has been monitored, at regular intervals, along the storage period (44 days). A predictive model was constructed according to the accredited scientific literature and validated against the observed growth curves of the above three groups. Afterwards, the predictive model has been used setting the temperature at the mean value of fluctuations (6.72°C), at the kinetic mean value of fluctuations (7.80°C) and at the 75th percentile value of fluctuations (11.14°C). The best fitting to the observed data was obtained with the kinetic mean temperature value and this result shows that this parameter can be proposed to reproduce the temperature fluctuation along the distribution and the domestic storage when a storage test has to be carried out.</p> 2020-04-01T07:05:57+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 enrichment factor in different cow milk cheese hardness category 2020-05-27T20:58:28+00:00 Ivan Pecorelli Raffaella Branciari Rossana Roila David Ranucci Rita Bibi Mariska van Asselt Andrea Valiani <p>Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hepatocarcinogenic and genotoxic derivative of aflatoxin B1 excreted into milk after ingestion of feed contaminated by <em>Aspergillus </em>genus fungi. Because of the important role of dairy products, especially cow cheese, in the human diet, there is great concern about the presence of AFM1 in this food category. EC Regulation No. 1881/2006 establishes the importance of the enrichment factor (EF), an essential parameter that must be defined in order to evaluate the maximum level of the toxin in cheese aiming to ensure that cheese has been produced from compliant milk. The Italian Ministry of Health has established two provisional AFM1 EFs (5.5 and 3.0) to be applied to as many cheese categories (hard and soft), defined according to the moisture content on a fat free basis (MFFB) classification. Two experimental productions of Primosale and Fior di Latte cheese, both belonging to the soft cheese category, showed an EF of 4.1 and 2.9 respectively. Data in literature also suggest that the EF attribution based on the current categorization may need reconsideration.</p> 2020-04-01T07:17:45+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Hazard perception and possibility of simplifying food safety management systems in small businesses in Piedmont region, Italy 2020-05-27T20:58:25+00:00 Leonardo A. Ceballos Davide Vercellino Valeria D'Errico Paola Barzanti Lucia Decastelli Luca Nicolandi Mauro Negro Giuseppe Ru <p>Small food businesses, because of their limited resources, are hard pressed to comply with the requirements of a conventional food safety management system (FSMS). To overcome it, the European legislation provides some flexibility in the application of FSMS. With this study, we evaluated the change in the perception and awareness of hazards in food production and in the attitudes of food business operators (FBOs) after a regional regulation was introduced to allow flexibility and a campaign of training activities on the FSMS simplification opportunities. Training activities targeting various stakeholders have been carried out in Piedmont region since 2014. A total of 283 FBOs from the dairy and the meat supply chains were recruited for a two-round survey. Overall, the majority of the FBOs believed that application of an FSMS helps to overcome official controls, to produce healthy foods, to better manage the production process, and for staff training; its usefulness for enhancing customer trust was judged of limited value. FBO knowledge on the possibility of simplifying the FSMS activities increased significantly between surveys, suggesting the success of the information campaigns. Over time, simplification increased in the meat but not in the dairy supply chain, where it involved nearly 70% of FBOs. The cost of FSMS (mainly due to microbiological analysis) and the time it takes were the main reasons for FBO resistance to its application. Simplification of FSMS procedures were welcomed by the vast majority (&gt;90%) of FBOs. The perception of hazards was low and generic, suggesting the need for targeted training activities.</p> 2020-04-01T12:47:41+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of the animal welfare during religious slaughtering 2020-05-27T20:58:23+00:00 Roberta Barrasso Elisabetta Bonerba Edmondo Ceci Rocco Roma Antonio Alò Anna Mottola Patrizia Marchetti Gaetano Vitale Celano Giancarlo Bozzo <p>Plasma cortisol and its metabolites are physiological indicators for stress assessment and slaughtering method may affect their levels, playing an important role in the correct acidification of meat. The aim of the study was to determine and compare plasma cortisol values in animals slaughtered using traditional procedures, which include stunning (using captive bolt pistol), with those in animals slaughtered using Halal method, which does not involve stunning. The study was carried out on a total of 60 Charolais male beef cattle of eight months of age, bred in free paddock outdoors. The animals were divided into two experimental groups, each consisting of 30 individuals, on the basis of the slaughtering method,<em> i.e.</em> traditional or Halal, to verify the whole production chain and to ensure that the product conformed to Muslim rules. Plasma cortisol levels (detected by Elisa test) were evaluated at two different times of animal productive life: on the farm, one week before slaughter (T0) and during bleeding (T1). The 30 calves slaughtered after stunning showed plasma cortisol values of 4.06±1.94 and 43.72±12.09 nmol/L, respectively on the farm and during exsanguination. Conversely, the average values found in the 30 calves subjected to ritual slaughter were 3.26±1.01 and 88.81±41.02 nmol/L. The study demonstrated that throughout the animal’s productive life (from pasture to slaughter) the greatest variation between slaughter with and without stunning was observed during bleeding.</p> 2020-04-01T13:03:34+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of the sanitary survey 2015-2017 conducted in the gulf of La Spezia (Italy): Reclassification of the areas of production of live bivalve molluscs 2020-05-27T20:58:22+00:00 Alice Giusti Erica Costa Alice Traina Daniele Nucera Patrizia Serratore Mino Orlandi Andrea Armani <p>The sanitary survey is aimed at classifying and monitoring the production areas of live bivalve molluscs (LBM) and it is performed using standards that are provided by the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science’s Guide to Good Practice. In this study, data from the sanitary survey carried out by the Asl5 Spezzino on the production areas of the gulf of La Spezia during the period 2015-2017 were analysed. The number and type of the analysis performed both on the total sampling and on the individual target species, as well as the number and type of found non-compliance (assessed on both mandatory parameters and on parameters fixed by the local monitoring plan) were considered. Data were also compared with those from the sanitary survey 2012-2014. Appropriate statistic tests were used to evaluate data from <em>E. coli</em> and <em>Norovirus</em> monitoring. Overall, 4306 analysis were performed, especially on the species <em>M. galloprovincialis</em> (89%) and they were mostly focused on to the search of biological agents. 160 NC were detected. Most of the NC concerns the Norovirus’s positivity (93.75%) in <em>M.</em> <em>galloprovincialis</em> and <em>C. gigas</em>. A correlation between the levels of <em>E. coli</em> and rainfall/ seasonality (higher levels in the colder months) was proved, especially in the sampling points located in the inner part of the dam and in the Portovenere Bay. Class B was reconfirmed for <em>M. galloprovincialis</em>, the production areas of <em>C. gigas</em> were reclassified as A and those of V. verrucosa were definitively closed. The sanitary survey was therefore confirmed as a useful tool for reclassification and for monitoring LBM production areas.</p> 2020-04-01T13:31:26+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Occurrence of antibiotic residues in Apulian honey: potential risk of environmental pollution by antibiotics 2020-05-27T20:58:20+00:00 Alessandra Emilia Savarino Valentina Terio Roberta Barrasso Edmondo Ceci Sara Panseri Luca Maria Chiesa Elisabetta Bonerba <p>The presence of antibiotic residues in honey is widely documented and is attributed almost exclusively to improper beekeeping practices, due to the frequent use of drugs for the treatment of beehive diseases. Therefore, the aim of our research was to evaluate the presence of antibiotics in honeycomb using the Anti-Microbial Array II (AM II) and IV (AM IV) method and to assess the relationship between environmental context and antibiotic residues in honey. The results show the presence of antibiotic residues in 26/50 honey from brood nests samples, confirming the impact of environmental contamination on the health quality of this food product. In addition, subsequent analyses conducted on positive samples reveal the instability over time of antimicrobial molecules in honey. These results highlight the need for further studies in order to understand all likely sources of contamination and to implement a comprehensive safety management plan for honey.</p> 2020-04-01T13:46:39+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Histamine profile of dried-salted fish sold in local supermarkets of Samar, Philippines 2020-05-27T20:58:19+00:00 Ruel H. Amascual Harold O. Panganoron Elmer A. Irene Noeme D. Pajarillo <p>The Food Safety Act of the Philippines strengthens the welfare of consumer’s health by protecting the public from foodborne illnesses such as scombroid fish poisoning due to unusually high levels of histamine. The present study investigated the formation of histamine substance in driedsalted fish products that were sold in different local supermarkets of Samar. A total of fifty samples of dried-salted fish samples were used to analyze the histamine substance. Results of the analysis revealed that 81.3% are detected beyond the regulatory limits of 200.0mg/kg by the Bureau of Food and Drugs-Philippine National Standard. Based on the Box-whisper plot, the species with the highest concentration of histamine are <em>Bolinao</em> <em>(Stolephorus</em> sp.), <em>Hasa-hasa</em> (<em>Rastrelliger</em> sp.), <em>Lambiao</em> (<em>Selar</em> <em>boops</em>), and <em>Tamban</em> (<em>Sardinella</em> sp). In the non-linear regression model, a low r2 found out that histamine concentration in the products generally increased through time as sold in the local supermarkets.</p> 2020-04-01T14:45:33+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from poultry in Casablanca-Settat, Morocco 2020-05-27T20:58:16+00:00 Khadija Es-soucratti Abderrahman Hammoumi Brahim Bouchrif Rajaa Asmai Houda En-nassiri Bouchra Karraouan <p>Campylobacteriosis and <em>Campylobacter</em> spp. resistance to antibiotics represents a serious worldwide public health problem thermophilic Campylobacters, in particular, are major causes of gastroenteritis in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of <em>Campylobacter jejuni</em> isolated from chicken droppings, of commercial poultry in the city of Casablanca, Morocco. Between February and September 2017, 140 samples of chicken droppings were collected and analyzed by classical bacteriology methods for isolation and identification according to Moroccan Standard NM ISO/TS 10272-3 (2013), followed by molecular identification (PCR: polymerase chain reaction). Among the 140 samples, 102 (73%) were positive by Campylobacter spp. tests and 38 (27.14 %) were negative to <em>Campylobacter</em> spp. Among the positive colonies, 41 (40, 2%) were <em>C. jejuni</em>. Of the 41 C. jejuni isolates, resistance was detected to tetracycline (100%), erythromycin (97%), ampicillin (85%), ciprofloxacin (77%), amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid (61.4%), and gentamicin (12.0%). In conclusion, the data obtained in the current study demonstrate that the majority of<em> C. jejuni</em> isolates evaluated were resistant to antimicrobials of the cycline, macrolide, and fluoroquinolone families, and all of the isolates were susceptible to gentamicin. Fluoroquinolone is the drug of choice for treating <em>Campylobacter</em> infections. These results underline the need for prudent use of antibiotics in poultry production to minimize the spread of antibioticresistant <em>Campylobacter</em> spp.</p> 2020-04-06T13:09:13+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Geographical restriction of Hepatitis E virus circulation in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy 2020-05-27T20:58:14+00:00 Silvia Bonardi Virginia Filipello Enrico Pavoni Valentina Carta Luca Bolzoni Margherita Corradi Stefano Gilioli Marina Nadia Losio <p>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a singlestrand RNA virus that causes an acute viral hepatitis in humans. Among its eight recognized genotypes, HEV-3 and HEV-4 are zoonotic, infecting humans, pigs and wild boars. Recently, HEV-3 has been also detected in red deer, which represents another reservoir of HEV. Consumption of raw pork products (mainly liver sausages), undercooked wild boar meat, raw wild boar liver and deer meat has been responsible for foodborne HEV human worldwide. From November 2018 to March 2019, liver samples collected from 97 wild boars hunted in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy) were tested for HEV RNA. The hunting area included two territories for an extension of 33 km2, named A (about 13 km2, natural park, deciduous wood) and B (about 20 km2, cultivated fields in proximity of a river) areas. Distance between the two areas ranged between 8 to 10 km. A total of 73 wild boars were hunted in area A, and 24 in area B. HEV RNA was detected by Realtime RT–PCR in 23/73 liver samples of wild boars living in area A only (31.5% - 95% CI: 22.0-42.8%). The HEV sequences (n=13) clustered within genotype 3. The majority of positives belonged to animals &lt; 12 months (12/25; 48%), followed by subadults (13-24 months) (7/16; 43.8%) and adults (4/32; 12.5%). This difference was found to be statistically significant (p=0.0024). In absence of pig farms, the restriction of HEV-positive animals to a well-defined territory of 13 km2 (Boschi di Carrega Regional Park) could hypothetically be related to the presence of red deer <em>(Cervus elaphus),</em> which lived in area A at the beginning of the hunting season. Further studies are needed to confirm or deny our hypothesis.</p> 2020-04-06T13:42:09+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Infection by Mycobacterium caprae in three cattle herds in Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy 2020-05-27T20:58:12+00:00 Rossella Magnani Mauro Cavalca Marco Pierantoni Andrea Luppi Anna Maria Cantoni Alice Prosperi Maria Pacciarini Mariagrazia Zanoni Marco Tamba Annalisa Santi Silvia Bonardi <p>Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a contagious chronic disease associated with progressive emaciation (starvation) and tubercles (granuloma) formation commonly caused by <em>Mycobacterium bovis.</em> In cattle, <em>M. caprae</em> may also be responsible for bTB. In EU, human tuberculosis due to <em>M. bovis</em> had a notification rate of 0.04 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2017, but data did not include <em>M. caprae</em> infections. From September 2018 to April 2019, bTB outbreaks were investigated in three neighbouring dairy cattle herds in Parma province, Northern Italy. Parma municipality belongs to an officially free of bovine tuberculosis (OTF) Italian region. Official testing on cattle herds, performed every three years as legally required, revealed no positive animals. Tubercular lesions were found during the post mortem (PM) examination of slaughtered cattle and <em>M. caprae</em> genotype SB0418/VNTR 4,3,5,3,4,5,2,2,4, 3,15,5 was isolated. This report confirms the crucial importance of PM veterinary inspection at slaughterhouse, despite the OTF status of cattle herds.</p> 2020-04-06T13:57:14+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ERRATUM TO: Application of shotgun metagenomics to smoked salmon experimentally spiked: comparison between sequencing and microbiological data using different bioinformatic approaches 2020-05-27T20:58:26+00:00 Alessandra De Cesare Chiara Oliveri Alex Lucchi Frederique Pasquali Sünje Johanna Pamp Hanne Mordhorst Claudia Wylezich Casper Poulsen Gerardo Manfreda <p>The authors would like to correct the authorship in this publication, for the below-mentioned reason. Four co-authors (Johanna Pamp Sünje, Hanne Mordhorst, Claudia Wylezich, Casper Poulsen) have not been listed in the original version of the paper, due to an underestimation of the time needed to publish the results of PT as a whole, for which the dataset selected as described in the manuscript has been submitted.</p> <p>As a consequence, part of the mock community used in the PT has been described in the paper published in Italian Journal of Food Safety for the first time. Therefore, these authors involved in the design and preparation of the mock community, as well as spiking of the samples, should be added.</p> <p>Their contribution is detailed below: <br>- Pamp Sünje Johanna, designed mock community, contribution to design of ring trial. <br>- Mordhorst Hanne, preparation of the spiked samples, shipping ring trial samples. <br>- Wylezich Claudia, conceptualization and addition of the virus in the mock community. <br>- Poulsen Casper,&nbsp;preparation of the&nbsp;mock community.</p> <p>The online version of the original article &nbsp;can be found under doi: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.4081/ijfs.2019.8462</a></p> 2020-04-01T07:45:38+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##