Effects of vegetable powders as nitrite alternative in Italian dry fermented sausage
The aim of this work was to study the effects of reformulation of an Italian dry fermented sausage by replacing nitrite with celery or spinach powder alone or in combination with beet powder on some quality characteristics of the product. Five different sausage formulations were produced: i) Control negative (CN): no nitrate added; ii) Control positive (CP) 150 mg/kg potassium nitrate; Group with celery powder (GSe): 3 g/kg celery powder; iii) Group with celery powder and beet powder (GSeB): 3 g/kg of celery and beet powder, respectively; iv) Group with spinach powder and beet powder (GSpB): 3 g/kg of spinach and beet powder, respectively. There was no significant difference between the residual nitrite contents of the samples at the end of the storage period. From microbiological analysis no target pathogenic bacterium has been isolated and the lactic bacteria microflora showed a similar trend in all of the lots. Suggested storage periods for CP, GSe and GSeB were over 60 days by taking into consideration the microbiology and sensory evaluation. Sensory evaluation scores of samples with celery powder, in fact, were comparable to those of CP during storage. The GSpB samples showed similar and higher values regarding the structural attributes, the related attribute to colour showed decidedly lower values due to a greenish coloration of the slice to the presence of spinach.
Aksu M and Kaya M. Production of pastirma with different curing methods and using starter culture. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 2002; 26: 909-916 (in Turkish).
Bouvard V, Loomis D, Guyton KZ, Grosse Y, Ghissassi FE, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Guha N, Mattock H and Straif K. Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat. The Lancet Oncology, 2015; 16(16): 1599-1600. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00444-1.
Horsch AM, Sebranek JG, Dickson JS, Niebuhr SE, Larson EM, Lavieri NA, Ruther BL and Wilson LA. The effect of pH and nitrite concentration on the antimicrobial impact of celery juice concentrate compared with conventional sodium nitrite on Listeria monocytogenes. Meat Sci., 2014; 96(1): 400-407.
Hui YH, Nip WK, Nollet LML, Paliyath G and Simpson BK. Food biochemistry and food processing. Blackwell Publishing. 2006; 1st ed.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. Red meat and processed meat. IARC monograph on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, 2015; Vol. 114.
Kim TK, Kim YB, Jeon KH, Park JD, Sung JM, Choi HW, Hwang KE and Choi YS. Effect of fermented spinach as sources of pre-converted nitrite on color development of cured pork loin. Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, 2017; 37(1): 105-113.
Magrinyà N, Bou R, Tres A, Rius N, Codony R and Guardiola F. Effect of tocopherol extract, Staphylococcus carnosus culture, and celery concentrate addition on quality parameters of organic and conventional dry-cured sausages. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2009; 57(19): 8963-8972.
Montiel-Flores EE, Lòpez-Malo A and Bàrcenas Pozos ME. Vegetales como fuentes de nitritos: una alternative para el curado de carnes. Temas selectos de Ingenieria de Alimentos, 2013; 7-1: 57-67.
Myers K, Cannon J, Montoya D, Dickson J, Lonergan S and Sebranek JG. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure and varying concentrations of sodium nitrite from traditional and vegetable-based sources on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat (RTE) sliced ham. Meat Sci., 2013; 94(1): 69-76.
Parthasarathy DK and Bryan NS. Sodium nitrite: The “cure” for nitric oxide insufficiency. Meat Sci., 2012; 92(3): 274-279.
Riel G, Boulaaba A, Popp J and Klein G. Effects of parsley extract powder as an alternative for the direct addition of sodium nitrite in the production of mortadella type sausages-Impact on microbiological, physicochemical and sensory aspects. Meat Sci., 2017; 131: 166-175.
Sebranek JG and Bacus JN. Cured meat products without direct addition of nitrate or nitrite: What are the issues? Meat Sci., 2007; 77: 136-147.
Sebranek JG, Horsch A, Dickson J, Lavieri NA and Ruther B. The effect of pH and nitrite concentration on the antimicrobial impact of celery juice concentrate compared with conventional sodium nitrite on Listeria monocytogenes. Meat Sci., 2014; 96(1): 453-454.
Sebranek JG, Jackson-Davis AL, Myers KL and Lavieri NA. Beyond celery and starter culture: Advances in natural/organic curing processes in the united states. Meat Sci., 2012; 92: 267-273.
Shahidi F and Pegg RB. Nitrite-free meat curing systems: Update and review. Food Chemistry, 1992; 43: 185-191.
Sindelar JJ, Cordray JC, Sebranek JG, Love JA and Ahn DU. Effects of varying levels of vegetable juice powder and incubation time on color, residual nitrate and nitrite, pigment, pH, and trained sensory attributes of ready-to-eat uncured ham. Journal of Food Sci., 2007; 72(6): 388-395.
Sindelar JJ. Investigating uncured no-nitrate-or-nitrite-added processed meat products. Ph.D. thesis. Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA. 2006.
Sucu C, Yildiz GT. The investigation of the use of beetroot powder in Turkish fermented beef sausage (sucuk) as nitrite alternative. Meat Sci., 2018; 140: 158-166.
Tahmouzi S, Razavi SH, Safari M and Emam-Djomeh Z. Development of a practical method for processing of nitrite-free hot dogs with emphasis on evaluation of physico-chemical and microbiological properties of the final product during refrigeration. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 2011; 37(2): 109-119.
Tsoukalas DS, Katsanidis E, Marantidou S and Bloukas JG. Effect of freeze-dried leek powder (FDLP) and nitrite level on processing and quality characteristics of fermented sausages. Meat Sci., 2011; 87(2): 140-145.
Usinger EL, Larson EM, Niebuhr SE, Fedler CA, Prusa KJ, Dickson JS, Tarté R, Sebranek JG. Can supplemental nitrate in cured meats be used as a means of increasing residual and dietary nitrate and subsequent potential for physiological nitric oxide without affecting product properties? Meat Sci., 2016; 121: 324-332.
- Abstract views: 561
- PDF: 375
- HTML: 21
Copyright (c) 2020 the Author(s)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.