Contamination level and exposure assessment to Aflatoxin M1 in Jordanian infant milk formulas
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a principal hydroxylated-aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) metabolite, and has been classified as possible human carcinogen (group 2B). The aim of this study was to survey the contamination level, estimated daily intake (EDI) and tolerable daily intake % (TDI%) of AFM1 in Jordanian infant milk formulas. A total of 120 samples, 48 starter and 72 follow-on formula samples were collected and analyzed using ELISA technique. Of the 120 surveyed samples, 58 (48.33%) were AFM1-positive and exceeded the EU maximum limit for AFM1 in IMF (25 ng/kg). The average AFM1 concentration was 69.93 and 84.78 ng AFM1/kg, with range of <5 − 89.25 and <5 – 213.84 ng AFM1/kg in starter and follow-on formula, respectively. It is also noteworthy the high EDI of AFM1 by infants (1.557 and 1.551 ng AFM1/kg b.w./day), and the high TDI% values (786.9 and 775.9%). In addition, current study indicated high-extrapolated AFB1 content in the feed; accordingly, raised the need to implement good agricultural and hygienic practices as preventive and controlling measures to decrease AFM1 in milk and IMF through controlling AFB1 in feed at the farm level. Finally, it is obvious that the contamination of IMF by AFM1 is an international problem, and the protection of infants and young children against AFM1 in Jordan requires a fundamental setup of clear legal limits of AFM1 in Jordanian standards and strict monitoring and continual analysis of IMF traded and consumed in Jordan.