Management of transient loss of consciousness of suspected syncopal cause, after the initial evaluation in the Emergency Department

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Ivo Casagranda *
Michele Brignole
Simone Cencetti
Gianfranco Cervellin
Giorgio Costantino
Raffaello Furlan
Gianluigi Mossini
Filippo Numeroso
Massimo Pesenti Campagnoni
Paolo Pinna Parpaglia
Martina Rafanelli
Andrea Ungar
(*) Corresponding Author:
Ivo Casagranda |


The recommendations enclosed in the present document have been developed by a group of experts appointed by the Gruppo Multidisciplinare per lo Studio della Sincope (Multidisciplinary Group for the Study of Syncope; GIMSI) and Academy of Emergency Medicine and Care (AcEMC). The aim is to define the diagnostic pathway and the management of patients referred to the Emergency Department (ED) for transient loss of consciousness of suspected syncopal cause, which is still unexplained after the initial evaluation. The risk stratification enables the physician to admit, discharge or monitor shortly the patient in the intensive short-stay Syncope Observation Unit (SOU). There are three risk levels of life-threatening events or serious complications (low, moderate, high). Low risk patients can be discharged, while high risk ones should be monitored and treated properly in case of worsening. Moderate risk patients should undergo clinical and instrumental monitoring in SOU, inside the ED. In all these three cases, patients can be subsequently referred to the Syncope Unit for further diagnostic investigations.

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