Chest Disease Reports <p><strong>Chest Disease Reports</strong>&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed international medical journal devoted entirely to the study, diagnosis, and treatment of all conditions of chest-related diseases. These include – but are not limited to –&nbsp; pulmonology, respiratory medicine, cardiology, thoracic surgery and transplantation, critical care, abdomen and chest disease, and sleep medicine. The primary intent of the Journal will be to rapidly publish clinically relevant information that will directly improve the care of patients. Basic science studies and experimental papers of interest to those treating disorders will also be considered for publication.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Chest Disease Reports 2039-4764 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Comparison of spontaneous and secondary pneumomediastinum Pneumomediastinum (PM) is an uncommon event defined as the presence of free air in the mediastinum. Its clinical picture includes retrosternal chest pain, subcutaneous emphysema, dyspnea, dysphagia, dysphonia and asthenia. PM is further divided into two groups of patients: spontaneous PM, without any obvious primary source, and secondary PM, with a specific responsible pathologic event, such as trauma, intrathoracic infections, violation of the aerodigestive track or others. We retrospectively examined and compared backgrounds, onset, treatments and outcomes of ten and 5 patients in spontaneous and secondary PM. Natsuki Kawata Kohichiro Yoshie Fumihiro Oshita ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-19 2018-07-19 6 1 10.4081/cdr.2018.6365 Study on improvement of recruitment maneuvers and extravascular lung water in oxygenation of high altitude acute respiratory distress syndrome To understand the improvement of recruitment maneuvers and extravascular lung water in oxygenation of high altitude acute respiratory distress syndrome, 30 HARDS patients were enrolled in the study from May 2012 to October 2013 from Qinghai Provincial People’s Hospital. All the patients received recruitment maneuvers and Pulse Contour Cardiac Output, hemodynamics monitoring including intrathoracic Blood Volume Index; Global End-diastolic Volume Index; Global ejection fraction; Pulmonary Vascular Permeability Index; Extravascular Lung Water Index; Pulse indicates cardiac Index; Stroke Volume Variation; Pulse pressure variation; Maximum pressure to increase speed; Systemic Venous Resistance Index, oxygenation and hemodynamics were determined before and after 72 hours of recruitment maneuvers. The results showed that<strong> </strong>after treatment with recruitment maneuvers and capacity limitation, PaO<sub>2</sub>/FiO<sub>2</sub> was increased significantly compared with those before treatment [PaO<sub>2</sub>/FiO<sub>2</sub> (mmHg): 124.70±43.37 vs. 186.87±41.20, <em>t</em>=9.43,<em> P</em>&lt;0.001], ITBVI, GEDVI, PVPI, EVLWI, SVV were reduced significantly compared with those before treatment[ITBVI (ml/m<sup>2</sup>): 1031.00±275.88 vs. 907.13±242.56, t=1.26, <em>P</em>=0.041; GEDVI (ml/m<sup>2</sup>): 822.40±143.30 vs. 722.83±169.65, t=1.75, <em>P</em>=0.016; PVPI (ml/kg):2.71±1.21 vs. 1.98±0.65, t=2.86, <em>P</em>=0.001; EVLWI (ml/kg): 12.30±4.19 vs 8.12±2.94, t=8.27, <em>P</em>&lt;0.001; SVV (%):17.30±5.65 vs. 10.33±3.47, t=9.17, <em>P</em>&lt;0.001]. Our results indicated that recruitment maneuvers and capacity limitation have been improved oxygenation in HARDS, extravascular lung water reduced, and lung capillary permeability also improved.<strong></strong> Lijun Lin Siqing Ma Yongli Yao Junming Luo Qingjun Shi Qiang Chen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-11 2018-09-11 6 1 10.4081/cdr.2018.7028 Vanishing lung emphysema during chemotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma We report the case of a 79-year-old man with a tobacco smoke-related left dystrophic bullous emphysema that showed a considerable recovery of the cystic abnormalities during chemotherapy for pleural malignant mesothelioma. We suggest that the disappearance of the dystrophic emphysema could be explained by the combined effect of chemotherapy and pleural disease. We briefly review the literature and we discuss the possible mechanism of this unforeseen manifestation. Ivana Castaniere Roberto Tonelli Sofia Taddei Stefania Taschini Riccardo Fantini Alessandro Marchioni Marisa Covi Enrico M. Clini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-20 2018-07-20 6 1 10.4081/cdr.2018.7307 Primary pleural epithelioid hemangioendothelioma Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare vascular tumor exceptionally involving the pleura with less than 30 cases reported in literature. We herein describe another case of pleural EHE in a 79-year-old man with medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and high blood pressure. He presented rightsided pleural effusion. Computerized tomography revealed multifocal pleural thickening and effusion. Pleural biopsy was performed. Microscopically, the tumor showed a biphasic pattern with cords and nests of epithelioid cells showing mild atypia and rare mitosis with intracytoplasmic lumina containing red blood cells. The second pattern is composed of spindle-shaped cells with occasional necrosis. The tumor cells were positive for CD34 and focally with CK7. The diagnosis of EHE was made. Sarra Ben Rejeb Dorra Ben Ghachem Amen Dhaoui Salma Ben Marzouk Khadija Bellil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-01 2018-08-01 6 1 10.4081/cdr.2018.6336