Muscular dystrophies: key elements for everyday diagnosis and management

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Alberto Palladino *
Gerardo Nigro
Luisa Politano
(*) Corresponding Author:
Alberto Palladino |


Muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders that share similar clinical features and dystrophic changes on muscle biopsy, associated with progressive weakness. Weakness may be noted at birth or develop in late adult life. In recent years, cardiac involvement has been observed in a growing number of genetic muscle diseases, and considerable progress has been made in understanding the relationships between disease skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle disease. This review will focus on the skeletal muscle diseases most commonly associated with cardiac complications that can be diagnosed by echocardiography, such as dystrophinopathies including Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophies, cardiomyopathy of DMD/BMD carriers and X-L dilated cardiomyopathy.

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