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An innovative way to highlight the power of each polymorphism on elite athletes phenotype expression

Valentina Contrò, Gabriella Schiera, Antonino Abbruzzo, Antonino Bianco, Alessandra Amato, Alessia Sacco, Alessandra Macchiarella, Antonio Palma, Patrizia Proia
  • Valentina Contrò
    Department of Statistics, SEAS, University of Palermo, Italy
  • Gabriella Schiera
    Department of Biological Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), University of Palermo, Italy
  • Antonino Abbruzzo
    Department of Statistics, SEAS, University of Palermo, Italy
  • Antonino Bianco
    Department of Psychological, Pedagogical and Educational Sciences, Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, University of Palermo, Italy
  • Alessandra Amato
    Department of Psychological, Pedagogical and Educational Sciences, Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, University of Palermo, Italy
  • Alessia Sacco
    Department of Psychological, Pedagogical and Educational Sciences, Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, University of Palermo, Italy
  • Alessandra Macchiarella
    Department of Psychological, Pedagogical and Educational Sciences, Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, University of Palermo, Italy
  • Antonio Palma
    Department of Psychological, Pedagogical and Educational Sciences, Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, University of Palermo, Italy
  • Patrizia Proia
    Department of Psychological, Pedagogical and Educational Sciences, Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, University of Palermo, Italy | patrizia.proia@unipa.it

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the probability of soccer players having the best genetic background that could increase performance, evaluating the polymorphism that are considered Performance Enhancing Polymorphism (PEPs) distributed on five genes: PPARα, PPARGC1A, NRF2, ACE e CKMM. Particularly, we investigated how each polymorphism works directly or through another polymorphism to distinguish elite athletes from non-athletic population. Sixty professional soccer players (age 22.5 ± 2.2) and sixty healthy volunteers (age 21.2± 2.3) were enrolled. Samples of venous blood was used to prepare genomic DNA. The polymorphic sites were scanned using PCR-RFLP protocols with different enzyme. We used a multivariate logistic regression analysis to demonstrate an association between the five PEPs and elite phenotype. We found statistical significance in NRF2 (AG/GG genotype) polymorphism/soccer players association (p<0.05) as well as a stronger association in ACE polymorphism (p=0.02). Particularly, we noticed that the ACE ID genotype and even more the II genotype are associated with soccer player phenotype. Although the other PEPs had no statistical significance, we proved that some of these may work indirectly, amplifying the effect of another polymorphism; for example, seems that PPARα could acts on NRF2 (GG) enhancing the effect of the latter, notwithstanding it had not shown a statistical significance. In conclusion, to establish if a polymorphism can influence the performance, it is necessary to understand how they act and interact, directly and indirectly, on each other

Keywords

Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, performance-enhancing polymorphisms, performance

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Submitted: 2017-11-10 08:39:37
Published: 2018-03-01 11:50:15
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Copyright (c) 2018 Valentina Contrò, Gabriella Schiera, Antonino Abbruzzo, Antonino Bianco, Alessandra Amato, Antonio Palma, Patrizia Proia

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