Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia <p>The <strong>Archives of Italian Urology and Andrology</strong> publishes papers dealing with the urological, nephrological and andrological sciences. <em>Original Articles</em> on both clinical and research fields, <em>Reviews</em>, <em>Editorials</em>, <em>Case Reports</em>, <em>Abstracts </em>from papers published elsewhere, <em>Book Reviews</em>, <em>Congress Proceedings</em> can be published.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia 1124-3562 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Multidisciplinary approach to prostatitis <p>The modern clinical research on prostatitis started with the work of Stamey and coworkers who developed the basic principles we are still using. They established the segmented culture technique for localizing the infections in the males to the urethra, the bladder, or the prostate and to differentiate the main categories of prostatitis. Such categories with slight modifications are still used according to the NIH classification: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS) and asymptomatic prostatitis. Prostatic inflammation is considered an important factor in influencing both prostatic growth and progression of symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis. Chronic inflammation/neuroinflammation is a result of a deregulated acute phase response of the innate immune system affecting surrounding neural tissue at molecular, structural and functional levels. Clinical observations suggest that chronic inflammation correlates with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and an history of clinical chronic prostatitis significantly increases the odds for prostate cancer. The NIHNIDDK classification based on the use of the microbiological 4- glasses localization test or simplified 2-glasses test, is currently accepted worldwide. The UPOINT system identifies groups of clinicians with homogeneous clinical presentation and is used to recognize phenotypes to be submitted to specific treatments. The UPOINTS algorithm implemented the original UPOINT adding to the urinary domains (U), psycho-social (P), organspecific (O), infection (I), neurological (N), muscle tension and tenderness (T) a further domain related to sexuality (S). In fact sexual dysfunction (erectile, ejaculatory, libido loss) has been described in 46-92% of cases with a high impact on the quality of life of patients with CP/CPPS. Prostatic ultrasound represents the most popular imaging test in the work-up of either acute and chronic prostatitis although no specific hypo-hyperechoic pattern has been clearly associated with chronic bacterial prostatitis and CPPS. Use of a digital-processing software to calculate the extension of prostatic calcification area at ultrasound demonstrated a higher percentage of prostatic calcification in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI) is the current state-of-the art imaging modality in the assessment of patients with prostate cancer although a variety of benign conditions, including inflammation, may mimic prostate cancer and act as confounding factors in the discrimination between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Bacteria can infect prostate gland by: ascending the urethra, reflux of urine into the prostatic ducts, direct inoculation of bacteria through inserted biopsy needles or hematogenous seeding. Enterobacteriaceae are the predominant pathogens in acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis, but an increasing role of Enterococci has been reported. Many strains of these uropathogens exhibit the ability to form biofilm and multidrug- resistance. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) agents, in particular Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, have been also considered as causative pathogens of chronic bacterial prostatitis. On the contrary the effective role in genital diseases of other "genital mycoplasmas" is still a much debated issue. Sexually Transmitted Infections agents should be investigated by molecular methods in both patient and sexual partner. “Next generation” investigations, such as cytokine analysis, cytological typing of immune cells could help stratifying the immune response. Epigenetic dysregulation of inflammatory factors should be investigated according to systemic and compartment-specific signals. The search for biomarkers should also include evaluation of hormonal pathways, as measurement of estrogen levels in semen. Antimicrobials are the first line agents for the treatment of bacterial prostatitis. The success of antimicrobial treatment depends on the antibacterial activity and the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug which must reach high concentrations in prostate secretion and prostate tissue. Acute bacterial prostatitis can be a serious infection with a potential risk for urosepsis For iInitial treatment of severely ill patients, intravenous administration of high doses of bactericidal antimicrobials, such as broad-spectrum penicillins, third-generation cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones, is recommended in combination with an aminoglycoside. Use of piperacillin-tazobactam and meropenem is justified in presence of multiresistant gramnegative pathogens. The antibiotic treatment of chronic prostatitis is currently based on the use of fluoroquinolones that, given for 2 to 4 weeks, cured about 70% of men with chronic bacterial prostatitis. For the treatment of Chlamydial prostatitis macrolides were shown to be more effective than fluoroquinolones, whereas no differences were observed in microbiological and clinical efficacy between macrolides and tetracyclines for the treatment of infections caused by intracellular pathogens. Aminoglycosides and fosfomycin could be considered as a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of quinolone resistant prostatitis. Use of alpha-blockers in CP/CPPS patients with urinary symptoms and analgesics +/- non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), in presence of pain demonstrated a reduction of symptoms reduction and an improvement of quality of life, although long term use of NSAID is limited by side effect profile. However, the multimodal therapeutic regimen by contemporary use of alphablockers, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory showed a better control of prostatitis symptoms than single drug treatment. Novel therapeutic substances for the treatment of pain, such as the cannabinoid anandamide would be highly interesting to test. An alternative for the treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is phytotherapy, as primary therapy or in association with other drugs. Quercetin, pollen extract, extract of Serenoa repens and other mixtures of herbal extracts showed a positive effect on symptoms and quality of life without side effects. The association of CP/CPPS with alterations of intestinal function has been described. Diet has its effects on inflammation by regulation of the composition of intestinal flora and direct action on the intestinal cells (sterile inflammation). Intestinal bacteria (microbiota) interacts with food influencing the metabolic, immune and inflammatory response of the organism. The intestinal microbiota has protective function against pathogenic bacteria, metabolic function by synthesis of vitamins, decomposition of bile acids and production of trophic factors (butyrate), and modulation of the intestinal immune system. The alteration of the microbiota is called “dysbiosis” causing invasive intestinal diseases pathologies (leaky gut syndrome and food intolerances, irritable bowel syndrome or chronic inflammatory bowel diseases) and correlating with numerous systemic diseases including acute and chronic prostatitis. Administration of live probiotics bacteria can be used to regulate the balance if intestinal flora. Sessions of hydrocolontherapy can represent an integration to this therapeutic approach. Finally, microbiological examination of sexual partners can offer supplementary information for treatment.</p> Vittorio Magri Matteo Boltri Tommaso Cai Roberto Colombo Salvatore Cuzzocrea Pieter De Visschere Rosanna Giuberti Clara Maria Granatieri Maria Agnese Latino Gaetano Larganà Christian Leli Giorgio Maierna Valentina Marchese Elisabetta Massa Alberto Matteelli Emanuele Montanari Giuseppe Morgia Kurt G. Naber Vaia Papadouli Gianpaolo Perletti Nektaria Rekleiti Giorgio I. Russo Alessandra Sensini Konstantinos Stamatiou Alberto Trinchieri Florian M.E. Wagenlehner ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-18 2019-01-18 90 4 227 248 10.4081/aiua.2018.4.227 Vesicourethral anastomosis including rhabdosphincter in retropubic radical prostatectomy: Technique and results <p>Objective: Retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) is still widely used in clinical practice in localized prostate cancer because of its high oncological success. The aim of this study was to define the continence status in patients where rhabdosphincter was included in the vesicourethral anastomosis. <br>Materials and methods: Between November 2004 and September 2010, 90 cases who underwent RRP by the same surgeon in our clinic were taken into the study. In all cases vesicourethral anastomosis was performed include the rhabdosphincter. The anastomosis was performed with mean 2.9 (0-7) interrupted no 2-0 vicryl sutures, depending on the angulation of symphysis pubis and pelvic cavity. Pad test was performed to all patients at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. We defined patients as ‘continent’ when they no need pad, as ‘mild incontinence’ when they use only one pad daily, as ‘moderate incontinence’ when they use two or three pads daily and as ‘severe incontinence’ when they use more than three pads daily. <br>Results: Preoperative total PSA value was 12.2 ng/ml (range: 2.7-84 ng/ml). Preoperative prostate biopsy results were found that Gleason scores were 5, 6, 7 and 8 in 7, 53, 21, 9 patients, respectively. Mean operation and urethral catheter removal time was 103 minutes (60-200) and 14,6 days (9-28), respectively. Mean hospital stay was 4.6 days (2-20). According to results of postoperative pad tests, 38 (42.2%), 48 (53.3%), 55 (61.1%) and 75 (83.3%) patients were defined as continent in first, third, sixth and twelfth months, respectively. <br>Conclusions: We think that, our novel technique of vesicourethral anastomosis in standard RRP provides more optimal urethral position during fixation of pelvic floor and urethra, protect caudal retraction, preserve functional urethral length. Also strong full thickness stitch on urethra provides better urinary continence by hanging urethra in our patients. Although our early continence rate is better, our long term continence rate is similar to literature.</p> Ramazan Topaktaş Ahmet Ürkmez Musab Ali Kutluhan İsmail Başıbüyük Şinasi Yavuz Önol ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-18 2019-01-18 90 4 249 253 10.4081/aiua.2018.4.249 The role of nutraceutical medications in men with non bacterial chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome: A prospective non blinded study utilizing flower pollen extracts versus bioflavonoids <p>Introduction: Chronic prostatitis (CP)/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) represents a challenge for the urologist, since the therapeutic efficacy does not always result in a satisfactory quality of life for the patients. Often the side effects of the medications used (antiinflammatories, antibiotics, alpha blockers) far outweighs the benefits gained with their admission. The choice of nutraceutical medications is preferred for their effectiveness, that has been accepted and proven by the scientific community, and for the low incidence of side effects. The objective of this study to compare the therapeutic efficacy of the flower pollen extracts (Deprox®) versus Bioflavonoids in terms of reduction of symptoms, and in the average waiting time of the variation of the National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), and to evaluate the quality of life improvement of the patients affected by CP/CPPS. <br>Methods: Among the 68 patients presented with prostatic symptoms to the Hospital “Umberto I” in Rome, Italy between March 2016 and June 2016, 54 patients met the clinical diagnosis of CP/CPPS (class IIIa or IIIb according to the NIH classification). The patients were assigned to either treatment with Deprox® or quercetin based on a randomization scheme previously determined.The NIH- CPSI, IPSS, QoL questionnaires were administered. Every patient underwent bacterial cultures and trans-rectal ultrasound. <br>Results: There was a statistically significant improvement of the NIH-CPSI score and QoL in the Deprox® group (p = &lt; 0.0001 and p = 0.003 respectively). The average waiting time of the variation of the National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) was statistically significant (p = 0.0019). In the absence of efficacy of the “conventional” medications, which also carries significant side effects, the dietary supplements may represent a valid alternative. <br>Conclusions: DEPROX® has demonstrated a significant improvement of the symptoms and quality of life of patients diagnosed with by CP/CPPS. Furthermore, there was a statistical difference in the average waiting time of the variation of the NIH-CPSI) score without side effects as compared to the bioflavonoids complex with quercetin.</p> Angela Maurizi Francesco De Luca Antonino Zanghi Emy Manzi Costantino Leonardo Michele Guidotti F.P. Antonaccio Valerio Olivieri Carlo De Dominicis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-18 2019-01-18 90 4 260 264 10.4081/aiua.2018.4.260