Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia <p>The <strong>Archives of Italian Urology and Andrology</strong> publishes papers dealing with the urological, nephrological and andrological sciences. <em>Original Articles</em> on both clinical and research fields, <em>Reviews</em>, <em>Editorials</em>, <em>Case Reports</em>, <em>Abstracts </em>from papers published elsewhere, <em>Book Reviews</em>, <em>Congress Proceedings</em> can be published.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia 1124-3562 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Effect of variant histology presence and squamous differentiation on oncological results and patient’s survival after radical cystectomy Objective: To evaluate the effect of variant histology on pathological and survival findings in patients undergoing radical cystectomy due to muscle invasive bladder cancer. <br />Materials and methods: Data from 146 patients with radical cystectomy performed due to muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma between January 2006 to November 2016 at our clinic were investigated. The preoperative and postoperative data of patients with variant histology were compared with nonvariant urothelial carcinoma patients. Then of patients with variant histology only those with squamous differentiation (SqD) were compared with nonvariant urothelial carcinoma patients in terms of preoperative, postoperative and survival data. <br />Results: Of the 146 patients, 23 had carcinoma with variant histology. Of these, 17 had SqD, 4 had glandular differentiation, 1 patient had plasmocytoid variant and 1 patient had sarcomatoid variant. In patients with variant histology, postoperative T stage and upstaging was higher, with no difference observed in terms of overall and cancer-specific survival compared with nonvariant urothelial cancer patients. SqD patients were observed to have higher postoperative T stage compared to nonvariant urothelial cancer patients, with no significant difference observed in terms of survival. <br />Conclusions: In cystectomy pathologies, patients with variant histology (especially SqD patients) were observed to have proportionally higher T stage compared to nonvariant urothelial carcinoma; however there were no significant differences for overall survival and cancer-specific survival. Ertugrul Sefik Serdar Celik Ismail Basmaci Serkan Yarımoglu Ibrahim Halil Bozkurt Tarık Yonguc Bulent Gunlusoy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-30 2018-09-30 90 3 172 175 10.4081/aiua.2018.3.172 Intraoperative ultrasound in robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: State of the art Introduction: Nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) is of one of the most studied fields in urology due to the balancing between renal function preservation and oncological safety of the procedure. Aim of this short review is to report the state of the art of intra-operative ultrasound as an operative tool to improve localization of small renal masses partially or completely endophytic during robotassisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN). <br />Material and methods: We performed a literature review by electronic database on Pubmed about the use of intra-operative US in RAPN to evaluate the usefulness and the feasibility of this procedure. <br />Results: Several studies analyzed the use of different US probes during RAPN. Among them some focused on using contrastenhanced ultra sonography (CEUS) for improving the dynamic evaluation of microvascular structure allowing the reduction of ischemia time (IT). We reported that nowaday the use of intraoperative US during RAPN could be helpful to improve the preservation of renal tissue without compromising oncological safety. Moreover, during RAPN there is no need for assistant to hand the US probe increasing surgeon autonomy. <br />Conclusions: The use of a robotic ultrasound probe during partial nephrectomy allows the surgeon to optimize tumor identification with maximal autonomy, and to benefit from the precision and articulation of the robotic instrument during this key step of the partial nephrectomy procedure. Moreover US could be useful to reduce ischemia time (IT). The advantages of nephron-sparing surgery over radical nephrectomy is well established with a pool of data providing strong evidence of oncological and survival equivalency. With the progressive growth of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) techniques, the use of several tools has been progressively developed to help the surgeon in the identification of masses and its vascular net. In this short review we tried to analyze the current use of intra-operative ultrasound as an operative tool to improve localization of small renal masses partially or completely endophytic during RAPN. Giacomo Di Cosmo Enrica Verzotti Tommaso Silvestri Andrea Lissiani Roberto Knez Nicola Pavan Michele Rizzo Carlo Trombetta Giovanni Liguori ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-30 2018-09-30 90 3 195 198 10.4081/aiua.2018.3.195 Feasibility study for interspecialistic collaboration in active research of urothelial neoplasms of professional origin Introduction: In Italy only a small fraction of cancer is reported to the supervisory body and recognised as professional by the insurance institution. Among the causes of this sub-notification, especially for lowgrade etiologic fractional cancers such as bladder cancers are the lack of knowledge of carcinogenicity in the occupational field and the consequent incomplete medical history collections. <br />Objectives: Diagnosis of occupational bladder neoplasms and activation of systematic surveillance of tumors of professional origin through an "active research" program. <br />Methods: From July 2010 to July 2017, all patients diagnosed with Bladder Cancer in the departments of Urology of Area Vasta 3 ASUR Marche underwent a first interview and a further anamnestic study in selected cases.When an occupational exposure was recognised, more information for preventive, social security and criminal justice has been acquired. <br />Results: The study highlighted 18 cases of bladder tumors due to occupational exposure to aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are the most important risk factor for BC after tobacco smoking. <br />Conclusions: Our study confirmed that active research is an useful tool both for the activation of epidemiological surveillance and for the regional registration of professional tumors. In addition active research of occupational exposure allow obtaining information that can be used for preventive purposes, for criminal justice and for the initiation of medico-legal actions and improvement of working conditions aimed at guaranteeing workers' rights. Roberta Stopponi Enrico Caraceni Angelo Marronaro Andrea Fabiani Stefania Massacesi Anna Rita Totò Roberto Calisti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-30 2018-09-30 90 3 176 180 10.4081/aiua.2018.3.176