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Urinary tract infections are among the most common infectious diseases in humans. Today, resistance to nearly all antimicrobial classes is dramatically growing, and extremely drug-resistant or even pan-drug resistant pathogens are increasingly isolated around the world. It is foreseen that in the next decades the world will be facing a major medical emergency generated by the rapid spread of pathogens carrying resistance determinants of unprecedented power. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, multidrug- resistant Enterococci and fluoroquinolone resistance determinants in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive uropathogens are among the greatest emergencies. In this article, the major emerging threats of particular interest to urologists are reviewed, worldwide resistance trends are illustrated, and novel and older – but still active – recommended drugs are summarized.
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