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Can re-cTURBT be useful in pT1HG disease as a risk indicator of recurrence and progression? A single centre experience

Roberto Giulianelli, Barbara Cristina Gentile, Gabriella Mirabile, Luca Albanesi, Paola Tariciotti, Giorgio Rizzo, Maurizio Buscarini, Mauro Vermiglio
  • Barbara Cristina Gentile
    CUrA, Nuova Villa Claudia Clinic, Rome, Italy
  • Gabriella Mirabile
    CUrA, Nuova Villa Claudia Clinic, Rome, Italy
  • Luca Albanesi
    CUrA, Nuova Villa Claudia Clinic, Rome, Italy
  • Paola Tariciotti
    CUrA, Nuova Villa Claudia Clinic, Rome, Italy
  • Giorgio Rizzo
    CUrA, Nuova Villa Claudia Clinic, Rome, Italy
  • Maurizio Buscarini
    Campus Biomedico, Rome, Italy
  • Mauro Vermiglio
    Villa Gioia Clinic, Sora (Fr), Italy

Abstract

Introduction: Understaging after initial transurethral resection is common in patients with high-risk non muscle infiltrating bladder cancer (NMIBC) and can delay accurate diagnosis and definitive treatment. The rate of upstaging from T1 to T2 disease after repeated transurethral resection ranges from 0 to 28%, although the rate of upstaging may be even higher up to 49% when muscularis propria is absent in the first specimen. A restaging classic transurethral resection of bladder tumour (re-cTURBT) is the better predictor of early stage progression. According to some reports, the rate of positivity for tumor in re-cTURBT performed within eight weeks after initial cTURBT was as high as 18-77%, and in about 40% of the patients a change in tumor stage was reported. We aimed to investigate, in high risk group, the presence of residual tumor following white light classical transurethral resection of bladder tumor (WLre-cTURBT) and the different recurrence and progression rate between patients with persistent or negative (pT0) oncological disease after WLre-cTURBT. Materials and methods: A cohort of 285 patients presenting with primitive bladder cancer underwent to WLcTURBT from January 2011 to December 2015; out of them 92 (32.28%) were T1HG. In according to EAU guidelines 2011, after 4-6 weeks all HG bladder cancer patients underwent a WL recTURBT . All patients were submitted to a subsequent followup including cystoscopy every 3 months with multiple biopsies, randomly and in the previous zone of resection; urinary citology on 3 specimens and kidney/bladder ultrasound every 6 months. The average follow-up was 48 months. Results: Following WLre-cTURBT we observed a persistent disease in 18 (15.2%) patients: 14 (77.7%) with a HG-NMIBC and 4 (22.2%) with a high grade (HG) muscle invasive bladder cancer (pT2HG). After follow up of all 92 patients according to the guidelines EAU, we observed recurrence in 36/92 (39.1%) and progression in 14/92 (15.2%). Of 14 NMIBC with persistent disease, 10 patients (71.4%) showed recurrence: 4 patients (40%) were pT1HG with concomitant carcinoma in situ (CIS), 3 patients (30%) multifocal pTaHG, 2 (20%) patients CIS and one patient (10%) a muscle invasive neoplasm (pT2HG). Instead of the group of 48 patients pT0 following WL recTURBT, we observed recurrence in 26 patients (54.1%) and in two patients (4.1%) progressions, who presented after 3 months in association with CIS. The remaining 22 patients (45.9%) with initial pT1HG are still progression free. Multivariate analysis showed that the most important variable of early progression were persistent neoplasm and histopathological findings at WLre-cTURBt (p = 0.01), followed by the Summary No conflict of interest declared. INTRODUCTION Bladder cancer is a common genito-urinary malignancy, with transitional cell carcinoma comprising nearly 90% of all primary bladder tumours. At the first diagnosis 70% to 80% of urothelial tumours are confined to the epithelium, the remainder is characterized by muscle invasion. A significant number of patients with high risk non-muscle invasive bladder tumours (HG-NMIBT) treated with white light classic transurethral resection of bladder tumours (WLcTURBT) and intravesical BCG will progress to invasive disease (1-3). Progression to muscle invasion (pT2) mandates immediate radical cystectomy (4). WLcTURBT is the standard initial therapy for NMIBT, but the high percentage of recurrence after surgery is still an unresolved problem (5). High grade pT1 bladder neoplasm (pT1HG) really represents a therapeutic challenge due to the high risk of progression (about 15-30%) to muscle-invasive disease, usually within 5 years (6). However, no consensus exists regarding the treatment of patients with recurrent bladder tumours that invade the lamina propria (pT1) (7-9). Recent studies suggested that the first cTURBT may be incomplete in a significant number of cases (10). Understaging at the time of the initial transurethral resection is common for patients with high-risk NMIBC and can delay accurate diagnosis and definitive treatment. It is therefore recommended for patients with high-risk disease and in those with large or multiple tumors or when the initial transurethral resection is incomplete, to repeat WLre-cTURBT within 2-6 DOI: 10.4081/aiua.2017.4.272 result of the first cystoscopy (p = 0.002) and presence of CIS (p = 0.02). Discussion: Following WLre-cTURBt in HG-NMIBC patients we identified in 15% of cases a persistent disease with a 4.3% of MIBC. In the high risk persistent bladder neoplasms group we observed recurrent and progression rate higher than in T0 bladder tumours group (Δ = + 17.3% and = Δ + 62.5%, p < 0.05

Keywords

pT1HG; WLre-cTURBT; BCG schedule; pCISHG Recurrence and progression rate

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Submitted: 2016-11-14 18:49:14
Published: 2017-12-31 00:00:00
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Copyright (c) 2018 roberto giulianelli, BARBARA CRISTINA GENTILE, luca albanesi, gabriella mirabile, paola tariciotti, giorgio rizzo, maurizio buscarini, mauro vermiglio

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