Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis: Aetiology, evaluation and management

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William Rourke
Shahid Aziz Anwer Khan *
Kamran Ahmed
Shikohe Masood
Prokar Dasgupta
Muhammad Shamim Khan
(*) Corresponding Author:
Shahid Aziz Anwer Khan |


Interstitial cystitis or bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is often a chronic debilitating condition characterised by predominantly storage symptoms and associated frequently with pelvic pain that varies with bladder filling. The aetiology is uncertain as the condition occurs in the absence of a urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology. Resulting discomfort may vary and ranges from abdominal tenderness to intense bladder spasms. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult and is often made by its typical cystoscopic features. This review discusses the diagnosis and management of interstitial cystitis according to the current available best evidence and advises a multimodal approach in its management.

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