It has been demonstrated over time that patients with haemoglobinopathies who exhibit a high level of compliance to proper therapy benefit not only from higher life expectancy but also from significantly better quality of life. The treatment of thalassaemia consists of blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy. Managing any complications due to iron overload, performing all necessary clinical and laboratory examinations and dealing effectively with psychological issues are also very important. Blood transfusion scheme must be designed by the treating physician according to the patient’s clinical needs. Chelation therapy should be aimed at selecting the right medication and the right dose. Examinations should be as organized as possible, and the management of complications depends significantly on cooperation with experienced specialists in each respective field. Ultimately, effectiveness of treatment and patient’s psychological well-being (acceptance of the disease and positive attitude) are the most decisive factors, as they seem to be connected to adherence through a mechanism of positive feedback. Hence, professional psychological support should be part of multidisciplinary care. Difference of point of view between doctor and patient can often be the reason behind misinterpretations or misunderstandings.